Skip to main content

Association between early fluid overload and mortality in critically-ill mechanically ventilated children: a single-center retrospective cohort study

Abstract

Background

Positive fluid overload (FO) may cause adverse effect. This study retrospectively analyzed the relationship between early FO and in-hospital mortality in children with mechanical ventilation (MV) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods

This study retrospectively enrolled 309 children (ages 28 days to 16 years) receiving invasive MV admitted to the PICU of Xinhua Hospital from March 2014 to March 2019. Children receiving MV for less than 48 h were excluded. The FO in the first 3 days of MV was considered to the early FO. Patients were divided into groups according to early FO and survival to evaluate the associations of early FO, percentage FO(%FO) > 10%, and %FO > 20% with in-hospital mortality.

Results

A total of 309 patients were included. The mean early FO was 8.83 ± 8.81%, and the mortality in hospital was 26.2% (81/309). There were no significant differences in mortality among different FO groups (P = 0.053) or in early FO between survivors and non-survivors (P = 0.992). Regression analysis demonstrated that use of more vasoactive drugs, the presence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, longer duration of MV, and a non-operative reason for PICU admission were related to increased mortality (P < 0.05). Although early FO and %FO > 10% were not associated with in-hospital mortality (β = 0.030, P = 0.090, 95% CI = 0.995–1.067; β = 0.479, P = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.837–3.117), %FO > 20% was positively correlated with mortality (β = 1.057, OR = 2.878, P = 0.029, 95% CI = 1.116–7.418).

Conclusions

The correlation between early FO and mortality was affected by interventions and the severity of the disease, but %FO > 20% was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in critically ill MV-treated children.

Peer Review reports

Background

Proper fluid management is an important treatment method in critical illness to maintain good circulation capacity and tissue perfusion. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of high levels of fluid accumulation, including deterioration of lung function, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and length of stay (LOS) in hospital and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). These studies have mostly focused on pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI), septic shock, and the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of critical illnesses in PICU in general [9,10,11]. Although the relationship between fluid overload (FO) and mortality reported by these studies is controversial, FO may be a predictor of death in critically ill children.

Research on fluid accumulation has increasingly focused on early FO. Most studies evaluate early FO as the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the cumulative amount of fluid intake and output to weight on admission to hospital or PICU. In a retrospective study of 638 hospitalized patients receiving MV in the PICU [11], FO within 48 h of admission was not related to mortality, but it was related to deterioration of oxygenation index and prolonged MV duration in surviving patients, especially when the percentage of FO (%FO) was greater than or equal to 15%. Sutherland et al. [7] divided patients into two groups based on %FO (< 20% and ≥ 20%) for correlation analysis. The results showed that the mortality of children with %FO ≥ 20% was about 8.5 times that of children in the low %FO group. Some studies directly defined early FO as %FO ≥ 10% and also confirmed that %FO ≥ 10% often has adverse clinical consequences [6, 9, 12].

The correlation between prognosis such as mortality and early FO in children with severe illness is controversial, and there are few relevant studies compared with adults. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between early FO and mortality in patients with severe pediatric mechanical ventilation. So in this study, we explored the associations of early FO with in-hospital mortality in children with invasive MV in PICU.

Methods

Patient population and study design

This was a retrospective single center cohort study around children (aged between ≥28 days and 16 years) undergoing invasive MV admitted to the PICU of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from March 2014 to March 2019. All patients were included with MV for more than 48 h. Children who received MV for less than 48 h or were hospitalized in PICU for less than 48 h due to discharge or death were not included in this cohort (Fig. 1). Local research ethics approval for the study was obtained from the ethics committee of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (approval no. XHEC-D-2020-163). The actual number of patients enrolled far exceeds the estimated sample size.

Fig. 1
figure1

Study selection diagram. MV: mechanical ventilation. PICU: pediatric intensive care unit

Daily fluid assessment was performed in all patients. Daily fluid intake included all intravenous fluid and oral rehydration; daily fluid output included urine volume, feces, all drainage volume, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), dehydration. The ratio of the difference between daily fluid intake and output to baseline weight at admission to PICU was expressed as a percentage: %FO = (daily fluid intake in liters − daily fluid output in liters)/admission weight in kilograms * 100%. We defined early FO as %FO during the first 3 days of MV. We focused on %FO > 10% and %FO > 20% and divided patients into four groups based on %FO as follows: %FO ≤ 0%, 0 < %FO ≤ 10, 10% < %FO ≤ 20%, and %FO > 20%. We also divided the children into survival group and non-survival group to explore whether there was a difference in early FO.

Data collection and definition

Basic demographic information was collected, including: age, gender, baseline weight at admission to PICU, presence of underlying disease, duration of MV, LOS in hospital, LOS in PICU, presence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), in-hospital mortality, main intervention measures (receipt of CRRT, use of vasoactive drugs), and daily fluid access.

Patients were grouped based on their main reason for PICU admission into surgical patients and medical patients. The third-generation admission pediatric risk of mortality score (PRISM-III) was used as the measure of illness severity and was determined for all patients during the first 24 h following admission to the PICU. Vasoactive medications were defined as any continuous vasoactive infusion used for cardiovascular support. Based on any chronic condition on admission, underlying disease mainly included congenital malformation, immune deficiency, genetic and metabolic diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and severe malnutrition that were present and clearly diagnosed before admission. MODS was defined as at least two failed organs at any time during PICU admission, according to recently published criteria [13]. Clinical outcomes measured included length of PICU stay, LOS in hospital, and in-hospital mortality that was defined as a death occurring during hospital stay. The duration of MV in days was measured as the time from first MV support to extubation or time of PICU discharge without extubation. Extubation failure was defined as the reinstitution of MV within 48 h of extubation. Duration of MV longer than 7 days was concerned based on the effect of prolonged MV on prognosis [14, 15].

Clinical outcomes

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of early FO, %FO > 10%, and %FO > 20% with in-hospital mortality. The secondary objective was to study the relationships of early FO with LOS in hospital and LOS in the PICU.

Statistical analysis

SPSS Statistics version 22.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY) was used for statistical analysis. Kruskal–Wallis test was used to analyze continuous variables in different groups, and Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyze continuous variables between survivors and non-survivors. Pearson chi-square test was used for categorical variables. For continuous variables, data were reported as median with interquartile range (IQR) or mean ± standard deviation (SD); percentages were used for categorical variables. The relationship between early FO and LOS in PICU or hospital was assessed based on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. A binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effects on in-hospital mortality. Other outcome measures with P < 0.1 were introduced in the multivariate logistic regression model. Results were presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for logistic regression. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

Demographics of all subjects

We collected and analyzed cases from the past 5 years; 309 patients were eligible for inclusion. The characteristics of the patients were shown in Table 1. There were 107 cases in the operative group and 202 cases in the non-operative group. The in-hospital mortality was 26.2% (81/309), 187 patients were male (60.5%), and more than half of the patients (69.3%) had underlying diseases. 59 patients (19.1%) received CRRT, 91 patients (29.4%) were diagnosed with MODS, and the median PRISM-III score was 5.0.

Table 1 Patient characteristics

Characteristics of early FO

The mean early FO was 8.83 ± 8.81%. And 42.4 and 8.7% of patients had a FO of more than 10 and 20% (Table 1). The median value of daily FO was gradually stabilized (Fig. 2). The proportion of four different FO was shown in Table 2, of which 0-10% and 10-20% were more. Different early FO levels were correlated with age, weight, presence of underlying diseases, reason for PICU admission, use of vasoactive drugs and CRRT, presence of MODS, and PRISM-III scores. There was no statistical difference in duration of MV. As shown in Table 3, the median values of eraly FO in survivors and non-survivors were 8.1 and 7.6%. More patients in the death group had a FO of more than 20%(P = 0.037).

Fig. 2
figure2

The median value of daily FO in the first 7 days

Table 2 Comparison of all patients by %FO group
Table 3 Comparison of survivors with non-survivors

Compared with the other groups, the %FO ≤ 0% group was older and had more CRRT treatment; patients also received more vasoactive drugs, were more likely to have MODS, and had higher PRISM-III scores than the 0% < %FO ≤ 10 and 10% < FO ≤ 20% groups. They were heavier than those in the 10% < %FO ≤ 20% and %FO > 20% groups. Compared with the 10% < %FO ≤ 20% group, patients in the 0% < %FO ≤ 10% group were older and received more CRRT treatment; they were also heavier than those in the 10% < FO ≤ 20% and %FO > 20% groups. Compared with the other groups, the 10% < %FO ≤ 20% group had fewer medical patients and more surgical patients. Compared with the %FO ≤ 0 and 0% < %FO ≤ 10% groups, patients in the 10% < %FO ≤ 20% and %FO > 20% groups had more underlying diseases. The %FO > 20% group had more use of vasoactive drugs than the 10% < FO ≤ 20% group (all P < 0.05) (Table 2).

Association between early FO and mortality

In the study, there were 228 survivors and 81 non-survivors. As shown in Table 2, there were no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality between four early FO groups(P = 0.053), but the group with %FO>20% had the highest mortality. As shown in Table 3, there was no statistical difference between survivors and non-survivors in early FO(P = 0.992); However, there were statistically significant differences in duration of MV, LOS in hospital, use of vasoactive drugs and CRRT, presence of MODS, and operative reason for admission (all P < 0.05). Compared with the survivors, the non-survivor group included more medical patients, received more vasoactive drugs and CRRT, and had a longer duration of MV and shorter LOS in hospital.

On multivariate analysis, the duration of MV overlapped with the duration of first MV, so we chose the duration of MV as the one of intervention factors. We adjusted for prespecified variables (number of vasoactive drugs, time of MV, duration of MV, CRRT, diagnosis of MODS, reason for PICU admission, and PRISM-III score) to evaluate the association between early FO/%FO > 10% /%FO > 20% and in-hospital mortality (Tables 4, 5, 6). The results showed that use of more vasoactive drugs, the presence of MODS, a longer duration of MV, and non-operative reason for PICU admission were related to increased mortality (all P < 0.05). Although it was not statistically significant, there was a positive correlation between early FO and mortality (β = 0.030, P = 0.090, 95% CI = 0.995–1.067) (Table 4). Similar results were obtained with logistic regression for %FO > 10% and mortality. There was no statistical correlation between %FO > 10% and mortality (β = 0.479, P = 0.153, 95% CI = 0.837–3.117) (Table 5), but %FO > 20% was related to increased mortality (β = 1.057, OR = 2.878, P = 0.029, 95% CI = 1.116–7.418) (Table 6).

Table 4 Multivariate log regression analysis for association of early FO with in-hospital mortality
Table 5 Multivariate log regression analysis for association of %FO > 10% with in-hospital mortality
Table 6 Multivariate log regression analysis for association of %FO > 20% with in-hospital mortality

Relationships of early FO with LOS in PICU and hospital

As shown in Table 2, there were no statistical difference in LOS in hospital and in PICU(P = 0.240), but %FO>20% group had longest LOS in PICU(27.0(15.0-44.0)days) and 10% < FO ≤ 20% group had longest LOS in hospital(30.0(18.0-46.8) days).

The relationships of early FO with LOS in PICU and LOS in hospital were analyzed by Spearman’s method. Although there was no significant correlation between early FO and LOS in hospital (r = 0.056, P = 0.33), there was a positive but weak correlation between early FO and LOS in PICU (r = 0.148, P = 0.009).

Discussion

This was a retrospective study of the relationship between early FO and in-hospital mortality during invasive MV in children with critical illness. We mainly analysed the associations of early FO and in-hospital mortality adjusting for prespecified variables. The adverse effects of positive fluid accumulation have been confirmed in research on adults [1,2,3,4]. Studies of ARDS fluid management strategies have directly confirmed that compared with a positive fluid management strategy, conservative fluid treatment better achieves a negative balance of fluid management, improves lung function, and shortens LOS in ICU. Despite differences between adults and children, similar negative effects of early FO have been confirmed in studies of critical illness in children, especially in cases of ARDS/ALI, sepsis, shock, acute kidney injury (AKI), CRRT, and perioperative FO in congenital heart disease [5, 9, 16,17,18,19]. However, there have few studies of FO in multisystem diseases. These studies of the adverse effects of positive FO always exclude children with hemodynamic instability or CRRT [20]. In this study, we did not select a single disease but enrolled critically ill patients receiving MV in the PICU, including those patients with hemodynamic instability and undergoing CRRT.

In this study, early FO was defined as the accumulated FO in the first 3 days since the first day of MV. Flori et al. [16] and Valentine et al. [21] also found that the increase in FO mainly occurred in the first 3 days. Related studies on septic shock have confirmed an increase in FO in the first 72 h and its possible negative effects [6]; A study on early fluid accumulation in children with shock also showed that the peak of fluid accumulation occurred within 3 days after admission to ICU [5]. In children with severe respiratory failure who need extracorporeal life support and CRRT, it has been reported that FO occurs more in the first 24 h of fluid treatment [22]. Therefore, it is important to choose an appropriate time for early FO, in order to accurately explore the correlation between FO and prognostic factors.

In our study, the mean early FO was consistent with those of studies by Arikan et al., in which 75% of the FO in the first 2 days was 11% [20], and Valentine et al., in which the average FO in the first 3 days was 8.5 ± 10.5% [21]. Although fluid management has become one of the most important treatment measures for critically ill children, the presence of positive FO remains very common. A previous study in North America and European countries showed that only 29% of ALI patients received restrictive fluid management in clinical treatment [23]. Some studies have found that the amount of FO in children with ALI was similar in adults with positive fluid management strategy, even though a restrictive fluid therapy strategy was used [21].

The relationship between early FO and mortality has been a research hotspot. In this study, the in-hospital mortality was 26.2%. This was consistent with the case fatality rate of 25–28% reported previously. Some studies for a single disease have found that FO has been reported as an independent predictor of death and related to the extension of hospital/ICU stay [6, 16, 19, 24, 25]. Adult studies have found that %FO > 10% is often accompanied by poor clinical prognosis [26]. In children, adverse effects of %FO > 10%, %FO > 15%, and %FO > 20% have been reported. Guidelines for septic shock in children also suggest that %FO > 10% in fluid management can be considered as an indicator for diuretic or RRT and other interventions. According to previous studies, 10% or 20% of early FO may be an important threshold for prognosis. Although there was no significant statistical relationship between %FO > 10% and mortality in our study, %FO > 20% was related to an increase in mortality.

However, the association between early FO and mortality was not found in this study. There was even a weak correlation between early FO and LOS in PICU. Some previous studies also found no significant correlation between FO and mortality [11, 27]. On our multivariate analysis, use of more vasoactive drugs, the presence of MODS, a longer duration of MV, and non-operative reason for PICU admission were positively related to in-hospital mortality. Given the importance of the effects of vasoactive drugs, we also analyzed the number of vasoactive drugs administered. A study of mortality-related factors in CRRT for AKI also confirmed that MV, the use of vasoactive drugs and other factors were related to increased mortality [28]. It is also worth noting that in a study on FO and mortality in 118 children with MV [29], there was a significant correlation between FO and organ dysfunction.

In this study, the PRISM-III score was used as the main marker to evaluate the severity of disease. In children with severe disease, positive fluid balance may be related to more early fluid resuscitation and capillary leakage. Some studies have found that the more serious the disease, the more likely it is to cause an increase in FO. Increase of FO was an independent predictor of adverse effects, and the correlation even remained after excluding the influence of disease severity [20]. Importantly, the adverse effects were mostly concentrated in non-survivors with critical disease; it had less similar conclusions confirmed on surviving patients. In many studies, PRISM score are the main factors used to evaluate disease severity [10, 19, 20, 27, 30,31,32,33], but our analysis showed that PRISM-III score was not a risk factor for mortality. Therefore, we propose that PRISM-III score may not indicate severity over the whole course of hospitalization in this study. Many similar situations have been reported previously in the relevant literatures [27, 30].

Sinitsky et al. [11] found that diagnostic category was an independent prognostic factor in a study of the correlation between FO at 48 h and respiratory morbidity. Vidal et al. [14] reported that respiratory and septic shock were related to prolonged MV in a study of the correlation between fluid balance and length of MV in children. In this study, the main reason for admission was even statistically significantly related to mortality. So, the impact of main reason for admission can be better understood. Moreover, We also reported for the first time that the 10% < %FO ≤ 20% group had fewer medical patients and more surgical patients. Another study found that potential etiology and disease severity were independent factors of mortality, and that side effects of FO only occur in the treatment of mild diseases with CRRT [31]. In our study, there were also many prognostic factors with significant differences in different early FO groups.

There still have several reports on multisystem diseases in PICUs [9, 10, 34]. A study on the relationship between mortality and FO in children with severe diseases confirmed that FO was a risk factor for death; however, the correlation analysis was a univariate analysis. Another study in a PICU in South Africa, focusing on FO in children with all severe diseases, showed that high levels of FO were associated with increased mortality. However, it should be noted that the study site and the disease spectrum were different from those of the current study, and most patients did not have high fluid accumulation; %FO > 10% only accounted for 3% of cases. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the complexity and severity of the diseases, which maybe have a great impact on outcomes.

This study had some shortcomings. 1) This was a retrospective analysis, the information bias was not negligible, and the number of research subjects was small. Although we used the concept of FO in fluid evaluation, the concept of FO was still undefined. 2) Many patients may have had some degree of FO before entering the PICU or before MV, and we could not eliminate its effects. 3) The disease spectrum was complex, and there were defects in the assessment of disease severity.

Conclusions

In critically ill MV-treated children, owing to the influence of disease severity and intervention measures, the correlations of early FO and %FO > 10% with in-hospital mortality were not clear in this study, but %FO > 20% was related to increased mortality. We suggest that positive FO may have adverse effects. Our study further provides a foundation for the development and evaluation of interventional strategies to mitigate the potential hazards associated with FO. More large prospective pediatric studies are still needed to further explore the threshold of adverse reactions of early FO.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

AKI:

acute kidney injury

ALI:

acute lung injury

ARDS:

adult respiratory distress syndrome

CIs:

confidence intervals

CRRT:

continuous renal replacement therapy

FO:

fluid overload

IQR:

interquartile range

LOS:

length of stay

MODS:

multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

MV:

mechanical ventilation

OR:

odds ratio

PICU:

pediatric intensive care unit

PRISM-III:

third-generation admission pediatric risk of mortality score

SD:

standard deviation

References

  1. 1.

    Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, et al. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2564–75. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa062200.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Stewart RM, Park PK, Hunt JP, McIntyre RC Jr, McCarthy J, Zarzabal LA, et al. Less is more: improved outcomes in surgical patients with conservative fluid administration and central venous catheter monitoring. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:725–35; discussion 735-727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.01.026.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Grissom CK, Hirshberg EL, Dickerson JB, Brown SM, Lanspa MJ, Liu KD, et al. Fluid management with a simplified conservative protocol for the acute respiratory distress syndrome*. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:288–95. https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000000715.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Malbrain MLNG, Marik PE, Witters I, Cordemans C, Kirkpatrick AW, Roberts DJ, et al. Fluid overload, de-resuscitation, and outcomes in critically ill or injured patients: a systematic review with suggestions for clinical practice. Anestezjol Intens Ter. 2014;46:361–80. https://doi.org/10.5603/ait.2014.0060.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bhaskar P, Dhar AV, Thompson M, Quigley R, Modem V. Early fluid accumulation in children with shock and ICU mortality: a matched case–control study. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:1445–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-015-3851-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Omar E. Naveda Romero MD, Ndez AFNM: Fluid overload and kidney failure in children with severe sepsis and septic shock: A cohort study. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2017;115. https://doi.org/10.5546/aap.2017.eng.118.

  7. 7.

    Sutherland SM, Zappitelli M, Alexander SR, Chua AN, Brophy PD, Bunchman TE, et al. Fluid Overload and Mortality in Children Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: The Prospective Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Registry. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55:316–25. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.10.048.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Alobaidi R, Morgan C, Basu RK, Stenson E, Featherstone R, Majumdar SR, et al. Association Between Fluid Balance and Outcomes in Critically Ill Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172:257–68. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.4540.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ida Bagus Ramajaya Sutawan, Dyah Kanya Wati, Suparyatha. IBG: Association of fluid overload with mortality in pediatric intensive care unit.2016. doi.

  10. 10.

    Ketharanathan N, McCulloch M, Wilson C, Rossouw B, Salie S, Ahrens J, et al. Fluid Overload in a South African Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. J Trop Pediatr. 2014;60:428–33. https://doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmu041.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sinitsky L, Walls D, Nadel S, Inwald DP. Fluid Overload at 48 Hours Is Associated With Respiratory Morbidity but Not Mortality in a General PICU. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16:205–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/pcc.0000000000000318.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Soler YA, Nieves-Plaza M, Prieto M, Garcia-De Jesus R, Suarez-Rivera M. Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage renal disease score identifies acute kidney injury and predicts mortality in critically ill children: a prospective study. Pediatric Crit Care. 2013;14:e189–95. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182745675.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A. International Consensus Conference on Pediatric S: International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:2–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PCC.0000149131.72248.E6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Vidal S, Perez A, Eulmesekian P. Fluid balance and length of mechanical ventilation in children admitted to a single Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2016;114:313–8. https://doi.org/10.5546/aap.2016.313.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Polito A, Patorno E, Costello JM, Salvin JW, Emani SM, Rajagopal S, et al. Perioperative factors associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation after complex congenital heart surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12:e122–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181e912bd.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Flori HR, Church G, Liu KD, Gildengorin G, Matthay MA. Positive fluid balance is associated with higher mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Res Prac. 2011;2011.

  17. 17.

    Hazle MA, Gajarski RJ, Yu S, Donohue J, Blatt NB. Fluid Overload in Infants Following Congenital Heart Surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013;14:44–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182712799.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Silversides JA, Major E, Ferguson AJ, Mann EE, McAuley DF, Marshall JC, et al. Conservative fluid management or deresuscitation for patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome following the resuscitation phase of critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2016;43:155–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-016-4573-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Li Y, Wang J, Bai Z, Chen J, Wang X, Pan J, et al. Early fluid overload is associated with acute kidney injury and PICU mortality in critically ill children. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-015-2592-7.

  20. 20.

    Arikan AA, Zappitelli M, Goldstein SL, Naipaul A, Jefferson LS, Loftis LL. Fluid overload is associated with impaired oxygenation and morbidity in critically ill children*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13:253–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e31822882a3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Valentine SL, Sapru A, Higgerson RA, Spinella PC, Flori HR, Graham DA, et al. Fluid balance in critically ill children with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:2883–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825bc54d.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Prowle JR, Echeverri JE, Ligabo EV, Ronco C, Bellomo R. Fluid balance and acute kidney injury. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6:107–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2009.213.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Santschi M, Jouvet P, Leclerc F, Gauvin F, Newth CJ, Carroll CL, et al. Acute lung injury in children: therapeutic practice and feasibility of international clinical trials. Pediatric Critical Care Med. 2010;11:681–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181d904c0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Chen J, Li X, Bai Z, Fang F, Hua J, Li Y, et al. Association of Fluid Accumulation with Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Children with Severe Sepsis. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160093.

  25. 25.

    Silversides JA, Ferguson AJ, McAuley DF, Blackwood B, Marshall JC, Fan E. Fluid strategies and outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2015;4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-015-0150-z.

  26. 26.

    Brierley J, Carcillo JA, Choong K, Cornell T, Decaen A, Deymann A, et al. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:666–88. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819323c6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Diaz F, Benfield M, Brown L, Hayes L. Fluid overload and outcomes in critically ill children: A single center prospective cohort study. J Crit Care. 2017;39:209–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.02.023.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Miklaszewska M, Korohoda P, Zachwieja K, Sobczak A, Kobylarz K, Stefanidis CJ et al. Factors affecting mortality in children requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric intensive care unit. Adv Clin Experimental Med. 2018. https://doi.org/10.17219/acem/81051.

  29. 29.

    Samaddar S, Sankar J, Kabra SK, Lodha R. Association of Fluid Overload with Mortality in Critically-ill Mechanically Ventilated Children. Indian Pediatrics. 2018;55:957–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Ingelse SA, Wiegers HMG, Calis JC, van Woensel JB, Bem RA. Early Fluid Overload Prolongs Mechanical Ventilation in Children With Viral-Lower Respiratory Tract Disease*. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017;18:e106–11. https://doi.org/10.1097/pcc.0000000000001060.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    de Galasso L, Emma F, Picca S, Di Nardo M, Rossetti E, Guzzo I. Continuous renal replacement therapy in children: fluid overload does not always predict mortality. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2016;31:651–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-015-3248-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Modem V, Thompson M, Gollhofer D, Dhar AV, Quigley R. Timing of continuous renal replacement therapy and mortality in critically ill children*. Crit Care Med. 2014;42:943–53. https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000000039.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Goncalves JP, Severo M, Rocha C, Jardim J, Mota T, Ribeiro A. Performance of PRISM III and PELOD-2 scores in a pediatric intensive care unit. Eur J Pediatr. 2015;174:1305–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-015-2533-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Alobaidi R, Basu RK, DeCaen A, Joffe AR, Lequier L, Pannu N, et al. Fluid Accumulation in Critically Ill Children. Crit Care Med. 2020;48:1034–41. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004376.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank all of the participants in this study. We thank the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, for assistance.

Funding

Not applicable.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Dr. XZ participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. Dr. YZ conceived of the study and performed the statistical analysis. Dr. XK participated in its design, data collection and coordination, and helped to draft the manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final version of the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaodong Zhu.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Local research ethics approval for study was obtained from ethics committee of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine. (Approval No.XHEC-D-2020-163).

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kong, X., Zhu, Y. & Zhu, X. Association between early fluid overload and mortality in critically-ill mechanically ventilated children: a single-center retrospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr 21, 474 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02949-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fluid overload
  • Mortality
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Children