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  1. Lower respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in children younger than 5 years. Even if the burden of lower respiratory infections in children under 5 year...

    Authors: Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie, Esayas Aydiko Amele, Yibeltal Asmamaw Yitayew and Zemen Mengesha Yalew

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:413

    Content type: Research

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  2. West syndrome is a convulsive disorder of infancy with unique seizures and a characteristic background electroencephalograph pattern. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is effective in spasm cessation, yet met...

    Authors: Inbar Gilboa, Galit Israeli, Avivit Brener, Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Uri Kramer, Shimrit Uliel-Sibony and Yael Lebenthal

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:412

    Content type: Research

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  3. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an exaggerated inflammatory reaction secondary to a host’s inadequate immune response causing a self-perpetuating loop of altered regulation. Signs and symptoms of H...

    Authors: Daniela Cleves, Viviana Lotero, Diego Medina, Paola M Perez, Jaime A Patiño, Laura Torres-Canchala and Manuela Olaya

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:411

    Content type: Research article

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  4. While great attention has been paid to motor and cognitive impairments in children with neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), sleep related circadian rhythm problems, although commonly present, are o...

    Authors: Qiuyan Tian, Yizhi Pan, Zheng Zhang, Mei Li, Li-xiao Xu, Min Gong, Po Miao, Xiaolu Jiang, Xiaofeng Yang, Chen-Xi Feng, Jian Pan, Yun Yu, Bin Sun and Xin Ding

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:410

    Content type: Research

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  5. The prevalence of allergic diseases (ADs), such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), is increasing worldwide in both adults and children. Although ADs are common and frequently coexist in outpatient care, cit...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Qi, Peng Shi, Renjie Chen, Yufeng Zhou, Lijuan Liu, Jianguo Hong, Lanfang Cao, Yanming Lu, Xiaoyan Dong, Jing Li, Yu Shi, Min Xia, Bo Ding, Liling Qian, Libo Wang, Wenhao Zhou…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:409

    Content type: Research

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  6. Birth weight has a substantial effect on children’s cognitive development, physical capability, and emotional development, which in turn impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Generally, evidence in...

    Authors: Tahir Ahmed Hassen, Catherine Chojenta, Nicholas Egan and Deborah Loxton

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:408

    Content type: Research

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  7. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects the premature lung, and to reduce its incidence has been used non-invasive ventilatory support, such as continuous positive airway (CPAP)...

    Authors: Sabrina de Jesus Brito, Sabrina Pinheiro Tsopanoglou, Endi Lanza Galvão, Franciele Angelo de Deus and Vanessa Pereira de Lima

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:407

    Content type: Research

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  8. Repeated intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance prediction is one of the pivotal topics in Kawasaki disease (KD). Those non-responders of repeated IVIG treatment might be improved by an early-intensified...

    Authors: Yaheng Lu, Tingting Chen, Yizhou Wen, Feifei Si, Xindan Wu and Yanfeng Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:406

    Content type: Research

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  9. We reported a patient with Testicular adrenal rest tumors(TARTs) caused by congenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAH). TARTs occur frequently in CAH population with 21-hydroxylase deficiency(21-OHD). There are few re...

    Authors: Lingyun Yu, Pengyu Chen, Wenbin Zhu, Junjie Sun and Shoulin Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:405

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Relatively little is known about protective factors and the emergence and maintenance of positive outcomes in the field of adolescents with chronic conditions. Therefore, the primary aim of the study is to acq...

    Authors: Petra Warschburger, Ann-Christin Petersen, Roman E. von Rezori, Friederike Buchallik, Harald Baumeister, Reinhard W. Holl, Kirsten Minden, Annabel S. Müller-Stierlin, Christina Reinauer and Doris Staab

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:404

    Content type: Study protocol

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  11. The spectrum of illness and predictors of severity among children with SARS-CoV-2 infection are incompletely understood.

    Authors: Leigh M. Howard, Kathryn Garguilo, Jessica Gillon, Kerry LeBlanc, Adam C. Seegmiller, Jonathan E. Schmitz, Daniel W. Byrne, Henry J. Domenico, Ryan P. Moore, Steven A. Webber, Natasha B. Halasa and Ritu Banerjee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:403

    Content type: Research

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  12. Very preterm children generally perform poorly in executive functions and particularly in working memory. Adaptive training tasks encouraging these children to work continuously on their personal working memor...

    Authors: Catherine Gire, Any Beltran Anzola, Monique Kaminski, Karine Baumstarck, Pierre-Yves Ancel and Julie Berbis

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:402

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. The ongoing worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has heightened several risk factors  for child abuse and neglect (CAN). We study whether COVID-19 and the public health response to it affected CAN-related pediatric eme...

    Authors: Lindsey Rose Bullinger, Angela Boy, Stephen Messner and Shannon Self-Brown

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:401

    Content type: Research

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  14. IgA-producing B cells have been found to be associated with children diagnosed with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with HSP possess altered B-cel...

    Authors: Ning Zhang, Ge Tian, Yuanyuan Sun, Jing Pan, Wei Xu and Zhe Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:399

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In LMICs including Pakistan, neonatal health and survival is a critical challenge, and therefore improving the quality of facility-based newborn care services is instrumental in averting newborn mortality. Thi...

    Authors: Nousheen Akber Pradhan, Ammarah Ali, Sana Roujani, Sumera Aziz Ali, Samia Rizwan, Sarah Saleem and Sameen Siddiqi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:396

    Content type: Research

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  16. Critically ill children require optimum feeding in the intensive care units for speedy recovery. Several factors determine their feeding and the feeding method to adopt to address this phenomenon. The aim of t...

    Authors: Alhassan Sibdow Abukari and Angela Kwartemaa Acheampong

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:395

    Content type: Research

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  17. Perinatal events which result in compromised oxygen delivery to the fetus can lead to Birth Asphyxia (BA). While the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of BA have been characterized, less is known in low res...

    Authors: Avinash K. Sunny, Prajwal Paudel, Jagannath Tiwari, Bishow Bandhu Bagale, Antti Kukka, Zhou Hong, Uwe Ewald, Sara Berkelhamer and Ashish KC

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:394

    Content type: Research

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  18. This paper aimed to describe the diagnostic service trajectory of families of children with autism or intellectual disability in the province of Québec and identify predictors of parents’ perceptions of its qu...

    Authors: Mélina Rivard, Coulombe Patrick, Catherine Mello, Diane Morin and Marjorie Morin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:393

    Content type: Research

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  19. Recommendations to prevent morbidity and mortality in children was a high priority for the editorial group of a WHO pocket book for primary health care in the European region. However, the benefit of preventiv...

    Authors: Sophie Jullien, Gottfried Huss and Ralf Weigel

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21(Suppl 1):356

    Content type: Review

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  20. We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin K given after birth in preventing the haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN).

    Authors: Sophie Jullien

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21(Suppl 1):350

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  21. We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in infancy for reducing vitamin D deficiency and for preventing rickets and infections. We also l...

    Authors: Sophie Jullien

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21(Suppl 1):319

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 21 Supplement 1

  22. Neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high. Many studies successful at reducing neonatal mortality have failed to realise similar gains at scale. Effective implementation and scale-up of interventions design...

    Authors: Kaajal Patel, Sopheakneary Say, Daly Leng, Manila Prak, Koung Lo, Mavuto Mukaka, Arthur Riedel and Claudia Turner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:390

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. Poor reading ability is one of the common causes of low academic performance. In previous studies, children with dyslexia were found to demonstrate poor academic achievement due to poor reading ability. Howeve...

    Authors: Riyo Ueda, Yoshimi Kaga, Yosuke Kita, Eiji Nakagawa, Takashi Okada and Masumi Inagaki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:389

    Content type: Research

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  24. Parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been suggested as a key factor for enabling parents to support children in the development of healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors and to prevent childhood obesity. ...

    Authors: Nora Döring, Ata Ghaderi, Johanna Enö Persson, Per Tynelius, Finn Rasmussen and Benjamin Bohman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:388

    Content type: Research

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  25. The use of genome-wide sequencing in pediatric medicine and research is growing exponentially. While this has many potential benefits, the normative and empirical literature has highlighted various ethical iss...

    Authors: Johanna Eichinger, Bernice S. Elger, Insa Koné, Isabel Filges, David Shaw, Bettina Zimmermann and Stuart McLennan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:387

    Content type: Research

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  26. Social inclusion establishes a basis for the overall wellbeing of children with special needs. Although children’s lives are centred around the household, little is known about the household’s influence on soc...

    Authors: Caroline Masquillier, Sara De Bruyn and David Musoke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:386

    Content type: Research

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  27. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with or without fibrosis. The predictors for liver fibrosis and the effect of nutritional intervention on hepatic fi...

    Authors: Hadar Moran-Lev, Shlomi Cohen, Muriel Webb, Anat Yerushalmy-Feler, Achiya Amir, Dana L. Gal and Ronit Lubetzky

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:385

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The Raynaud-Claes type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation (MRXSRC) is a very rare condition, by intellectual disability ranged from borderline to profound, impaired language development, brain abnormalit...

    Authors: Xin Xu, Fen Lu, Li Zhang, Hongying Li, Senjie Du and Jian Tang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:384

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  29. Jaundice is common among neonates and if untreated can lead to kernicterus. Diagnosing neonatal jaundice (NJ) using Kramer’s method (visual assessment) is considered user-friendly in resource-limited areas. Ho...

    Authors: Ikunda Dionis, Omary Chillo, George M. Bwire, Calvin Ulomi, Manase Kilonzi and Emmanuel Balandya

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:383

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Modifiable lifestyle factors and body composition can affect the attainment of peak bone mass during childhood. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of bone health among pre-adol...

    Authors: Chung Yuan Chang, Kanimolli Arasu, Soon Yee Wong, Shu Hwa Ong, Wai Yew Yang, Megan Hueh Zan Chong, Meenal Mavinkurve, Erwin Jiayuan Khoo, Karuthan Chinna, Connie Marie Weaver and Winnie Siew Swee Chee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:382

    Content type: Research article

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  31. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify adverse childhood experience (ACE) subtypes using variable- and person-centered approaches and examine the possible sex-differentiated associations with violence in...

    Authors: Xiayun Zuo, Ziwei Zhang, Li Yan, Qiguo Lian, Chunyan Yu, Xiaowen Tu and Chaohua Lou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:381

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. A significant number of patients with KS have cleft palate (CP) or submucous cleft palate (SMCP) and show delayed speech development. However, few reports have discussed the characteristics of CP in KS and the...

    Authors: Jong-Ho Kim, Jiwon Kang, Joon Seok Oh, Taeseon Ahn, Baek-kyu Kim and Rong-Min Baek

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Different surgical techniques and management approaches have been introduced to manage the cleft palate (CP) and its complications, such as otitis media with effusion (OME) and auditory problems. The optimal m...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Hoghoughi, Tayebeh Kazemi, Ali Khojasteh, Raha Habibagahi, Zahra Kalkate, Zeynab Zarei, Hamidreza Hosseinpour and Maryam Salimi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:377

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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