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  1. Neonatal encephalopathy due to acute perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of perinatal brain damage. Moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, th...

    Authors: Yoshinori Aoki, Tatsuo Kono, Mikako Enokizono and Kaoru Okazaki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:224

    Content type: Research article

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  2. There is a lack of a comprehensive evaluation for pediatric clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) published in recent years. Here, we assessed the quality of pediatric CPGs, considering factors that might affect...

    Authors: Yali Liu, Yuan Zhang, Shu Wang, Ling Liu, Gang Che, Jiahui Niu and Yuan Ma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:223

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Pediatric sepsis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to identify the incidence of sepsis and septic shock among patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care ...

    Authors: Mohamed O. Humoodi, Mona A. Aldabbagh, Maher M. Salem, Yousef M. Al Talhi, Sara M. Osman, Mohammed Bakhsh, Abdullah M. Alzahrani and Maha Azzam

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:222

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Children with acute peripheral facial nerve palsy cannot yet be recommended corticosteroid treatment based on evidence. Adults with idiopathic facial nerve palsy are treated with corticosteroids, according to ...

    Authors: Sofia Karlsson, Sigurdur Arnason, Nermin Hadziosmanovic, Åsa Laestadius, Malou Hultcrantz, Elin Marsk and Barbro H. Skogman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:220

    Content type: Study protocol

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  5. Centralisation of paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) has the increased the need for specialist paediatric critical care transport teams (PCCT) to transport critically ill children to PICU. We investigated...

    Authors: Sarah E. Seaton, Elizabeth S. Draper, Christina Pagel, Fatemah Rajah, Jo Wray and Padmanabhan Ramnarayan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:217

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Caregivers’ knowledge, practice and adherence in medication administration who care for children with chronic illness requiring long-term pharmacological treatments are factors associating with children medica...

    Authors: Chii-chii Chew, Huan-keat Chan, Chee-tao Chang, Amar-singh HSS and Mohamed azmi Hassali

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:216

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Adiposity status in adolescence is associated with various health outcomes in adulthood. Waist circumference [WC] and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] are measures of abdominal obesity and have shown to be valid p...

    Authors: Felicia J. Setiono, Laura A. Guerra, Cindy Leung and Tashara M. Leak

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:215

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Children’s healthy development is important. While governmental public assistance benefits financially troubled families, it cannot compensate for a lack of social support. Single-parenthood is a health risk f...

    Authors: Daisuke Nishioka, Junko Saito, Keiko Ueno and Naoki Kondo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:214

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Previous studies have suggested that choline and betaine are associated with improved anthropometric measures including, BMI and waist circumference however, results are largely inconsistent and limited studie...

    Authors: Alireza Jafari, Yahya Jalilpiran, Katherine Suitor, Nick Bellissimo and Leila Azadbakht

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:213

    Content type: Research article

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  10. As preterm infants’ neurodevelopment is shaped by NICU-related factors during their hospitalization, it is essential to evaluate which interventions are more beneficial for their neurodevelopment at this speci...

    Authors: Marilyn Aita, Gwenaëlle De Clifford Faugère, Andréane Lavallée, Nancy Feeley, Robyn Stremler, Émilie Rioux and Marie-Hélène Proulx

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:210

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a subtype of congenital myopathy (CM), is a group of clinical and genetically heterogeneous muscle disorders. Since the discovery of the SPEG gene and disease-causing variants, on...

    Authors: Gang Zhang, Min Xu, Tingting Huang, Wenxin Lin, Jinglin Chen, Wangyang Chen and Xingzhi Chang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:209

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Working memory performance is associated with better academic achievements in children and adolescents, and it is positively related to CRF. However, what level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) discriminates...

    Authors: Vinícius Muller Reis Weber, Daniel Zanardini Fernandes, Leonardo Alex Volpato, Maria Raquel de Oliveira Bueno, Marcelo Romanzini, Jose Castro-Piñero and Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:208

    Content type: Research article

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  13. To examine the association of handgrip strength (HGS) and bone mineral density (BMD) of Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Authors: Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti Saraiva, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior, Daniel Eduardo Rodrigues de Sousa, Luis Alberto Gobbo, William Rodrigues Tebar and Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:207

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Inconsistent findings have been reported for associations between protein intake and age at menarche. We aimed to investigate the association between intake of protein and protein-containing food groups during...

    Authors: Nazanin Moslehi, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:206

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is characterized by prominent ventricular trabeculations on cardiovascular imaging. Acquired reversible LVNC has not been reported in pediatrics without a g...

    Authors: Riko Kato, Hiromichi Taneichi, Shinya Takarada, Mako Okabe, Nariaki Miyao, Hideyuki Nakaoka, Keijiro Ibuki, Sayaka Ozawa, Yuichi Adachi, Naoki Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi Saito, Fukiko Ichida and Keiichi Hirono

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:205

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Presently, 1 in 4 Lebanese adolescents is involved in bullying, with 12% being perpetrators. In Lebanon, around 90% of bullying incidents occur in schools. Given the lack of studies tackling bullying perpetrat...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Awad, Chadia Haddad, Hala Sacre, Rabih Hallit, Michel Soufia, Pascale Salameh, Sahar Obeid and Souheil Hallit

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:204

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The study aims to use the cross-lagged model and utilize data from the Born in Shenyang Cohort Study to characterize the bidirectional associations of the term-born infants’ neurodevelopment in five domains an...

    Authors: Xiaotong Wei, Jiajin Hu, Liu Yang, Ming Gao, Lin Li, Ning Ding, Yanan Ma and Deliang Wen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:203

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the commonest cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in infants. However, the burden of RSV is unknown in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the prevalence, season...

    Authors: Abate Yeshidinber Weldetsadik and Frank Riedel

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:201

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Information on the foot structures of Central Anatolian children is limited. Foot structures of children aged 6–10 years were shown to be different according to sex and increasing age.

    Authors: Serap Alsancak, Senem Guner, Enver Güven, Ali Koray Özgün, Yunis Akkaş and Neslihan Alkıs

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:200

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Cognitive development after age three tends to be stable and can therefore predict cognitive skills in later childhood. However, there is evidence that cognitive development is less stable before age three. In...

    Authors: Lei Wang, Yifei Chen, Sean Sylvia, Sarah-Eve Dill and Scott Rozelle

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:199

    Content type: Research article

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  21. HIV infection is associated with significant neurocognitive deficits making maximization of cognitive function among children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) a public health imperative. Non-protease inh...

    Authors: Damalie Nalwanga, Victor Musiime, Paul Bangirana, Erika Phelps Nishiguchi, Andrew Kiggwe, Titus Ssesanga, John M. Ssenkusu, Philippa Musoke and Sarah E. Cusick

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:198

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Atopic diseases and behavioural difficulties in children have both been on the rise in recent decades. This study seeks to assess associations between atopic diseases and behavioural difficulties, examining th...

    Authors: Wiebke Keller, Mandy Vogel, Freerk Prenzel, Jon Genuneit, Anne Jurkutat, Cornelia Hilbert, Andreas Hiemisch, Wieland Kiess and Tanja Poulain

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:197

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Household food insecurity (FI), even at marginal levels, is associated with poor child health outcomes. The Nutrition Screening Tool for Every Preschooler (NutriSTEP®) is a valid and reliable 17-item parent-co...

    Authors: Imaan Bayoumi, Catherine S. Birken, Kimberly M. Nurse, Patricia C. Parkin, Jonathon L. Maguire, Colin Macarthur, Janis A. Randall Simpson and Cornelia M. Borkhoff

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:196

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To investigate the impact of protective measures and isolation on respiratory tract infections in children during the COVID-19 outbreak.

    Authors: Yueling Zhu, Wei Li, Binbin Yang, Ruiying Qian, Fang Wu, Xue He, Qinheng Zhu, Jinling Liu, Yan Ni, Jianbing Wang and Shanshan Mao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:195

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Ewing’s sarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Rarely, extra-skeletal soft tissues and visceral organs can also be the site of origin of Ewing’s sarcoma. Primary pulmonary Ewing...

    Authors: Xuefeng Ling, Jianlin Tong, Liangliang Wang, Chuan Yao and Zhiying Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:194

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Child malnutrition is a huge health problem having multifaceted consequences for child survival and long-term well-being. Although, several studies investigated stunting, underweight, and wasting in low- and m...

    Authors: Lijalem Melie Tesfaw and Haile Mekonnen Fenta

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:193

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death and hospitalization among young children worldwide, but its risk factors remain unclear.

    Authors: Xiangrong Zheng, Jian Kuang, Chan Lu, Qihong Deng, Haiyu Wu, Rachael Gakii Murithi, McSherry Brownel Johnson, Wang Peng and Maolan Wu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:192

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Delayed diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) causes significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the proportion of delayed diagnosis of CHD and factors related to the delayed diagnosis.

    Authors: Indah K. Murni, Muhammad Taufik Wirawan, Linda Patmasari, Esta R. Sativa, Nadya Arafuri, Sasmito Nugroho and Noormanto

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:191

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Neural tube defects are common congenital anomalies that result from early malformation in the development of the spinal cord and brain. It is related to substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psych...

    Authors: Mohammed Oumer, Ashenafi Tazebew and Mezgebu Silamsaw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:190

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In most studies, the virological response is assessed during the first two years of antiretroviral treatment initiated in HIV-infected infants. However, early initiation of antiretroviral therapy exposes infan...

    Authors: Francis Ateba Ndongo, Mathurin Cyrille Tejiokem, Calixte Ida Penda, Suzie Tetang Ndiang, Jean-Audrey Ndongo, Georgette Guemkam, Casimir Ledoux Sofeu, Paul Alain Tagnouokam-ngoupo, Anfumbom Kfutwah, Philippe Msellati, Albert Faye and Josiane Warszawski

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:189

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Bloodstream infection (BSI) resulting from ESKAPEEc pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacte...

    Authors: Xiaoshan Peng, Wei Zhou, Yu Zhu and Chaomin Wan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:188

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a kind of chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a highly abnormal immune system. This study aimed to detect the serum levels of Th (T helper) cyto...

    Authors: Wei Quan, Jingnan An, Gang Li, Guanghui Qian, Meifang Jin, Chenxi Feng, Si Li, Xiaozhong Li, Yunyun Xu and Xiaohan Hu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:187

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. HIV is a major contributor to infant mortality. A significant gap remains between the uptake of infant and maternal antiretroviral regimens and only a minority of HIV-exposed infants receives prophylaxis and s...

    Authors: Lilian M. N. Kebaya, Dalton Wamalwa, Nyambura Kariuki, Bashir Admani, Philip Ayieko and Ruth Nduati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:186

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Childhood obesity is a public health problem with repercussions in later life. As tissue formation peaks in childhood we determined how weight status influences bone mineral content.

    Authors: Francisco Sánchez Ferrer, Ernesto Cortes Castell, Francisco Carratalá Marco, Mercedes Juste Ruiz, José Antonio Quesada Rico and Ana Pilar Nso Roca

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) changes with age. Infants, toddlers and prepubertal children with OSA are usually underweight and may suffer from failure to thrive (FTT). Adenotonsillectomy (T...

    Authors: Keren Nathan, Galit Livnat, Liat Feraru and Giora Pillar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:184

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and breastfeeding with complementary feeds until 12 months for HIV exposed and uninfected (HEU) infants or 24 months for HIV unexposed (HU) infants is the current World Hea...

    Authors: Larisha Pillay, Dhayendre Moodley, Lynda Marie Emel, Ntombifikile Maureen Nkwanyana and Kimesh Naidoo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The overwhelming majority of United Arab Emirates (UAE) school-aged children do not meet the 60 min per day recommendation of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Understanding the different school d...

    Authors: Rahma Ajja, Ludmilla F. Wikkeling-Scott, Keith Brazendale, Rafiq Hijazi and Abdishakur Abdulle

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:182

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Early diagnostic indicators and the identification of possible progression to severe or critical COVID-19 in children are unknown. To investigate the immune characteristics of early SARS-CoV-2 infection in chi...

    Authors: Wenjie Lu, Li Yang, Xiong Li, Ming Sun, Aiping Zhang, Shanshan Qi, Zhi Chen, Lannan Zhang, Jianxin Li and Hao Xiong

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:181

    Content type: Research Article

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  39. Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep time are considered major contributory factors of the increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. The aims of this study were to (1) ident...

    Authors: Molly Mattsson, Deirdre M. Murray, Mairead Kiely, Fergus P. McCarthy, Elaine McCarthy, Regien Biesma and Fiona Boland

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:180

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The aim of this study was to characterize patients who ingested multiple rare-earth magnets, reveal the harm of rare-earth magnet foreign bodies in the digestive tract, and develop a clinical management algori...

    Authors: Yucan Zheng, Zhihua Zhang, Kunlong Yan, Hongmei Guo, Mei Li, Min Lian and Zhifeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:179

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by varying severity in attention deficit and hyperactivity. Studies have shown deficiencies in the serum level ...

    Authors: Mostafa Hemamy, Naseh Pahlavani, Alireza Amanollahi, Sheikh Mohammed Shriful Islam, Jenna McVicar, Gholamreza Askari and Mahsa Malekahmadi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:178

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Dental procedures under general anesthesia (DGA) was found to improve the oral health-related quality of children’s life. However, some parents and pediatricians expressed concern about the neurotoxicity of ge...

    Authors: Pinping Zhou, Chao Zhang, Guijin Huang, Yuan Hu, Wenzhu Ma and Cong Yu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:177

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortalit...

    Authors: Amare Kassaw, Desalegne Amare, Minyichil Birhanu, Aragaw Tesfaw, Shegaw Zeleke, Getachew Arage and Demewoz Kefale

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:176

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IXb is one of the rare variants of GSDs. It is a genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorder due to deficient hepatic phosphorylase kinase activity. Diagnosis of GSD can be...

    Authors: Zahra Beyzaei, Fatih Ezgu, Bita Geramizadeh, Alireza Alborzi and Alireza Shojazadeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:175

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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