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  1. The Lebanese population has undergone several conflicts and were the most afflicted by shelling and chaos during the civil war from 1975 to 1990, or even by displacement, bereavement, emigration, family separa...

    Authors: Georges Merhy, Vanessa Azzi, Pascale Salameh, Sahar Obeid and Souheil Hallit

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:288

    Content type: Research

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  2. A predictive model for risk of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)-related hepatitis in MP pneumonia pediatric patients can improve treatment selection and therapeutic effect. However, currently, no predictive model is av...

    Authors: Yuna Bi, Yan Ma, Jinhua Zhuo, Lili Zhang, Liyan Yin, Hongling Sheng, Jie Luan and Tao Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:287

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common complication in very preterm infants. It is known that there is an association between PDA and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death before the pos...

    Authors: Solomiia Potsiurko, Dmytro Dobryanskyy and Lesya Sekretar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:286

    Content type: Research

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  4. Children who are high priority candidates for early intervention need to be identified to reduce their risk for experiencing problems in development. Those exposed to multiple risk factors are more likely to e...

    Authors: Jan L. Wallander, Sarah Berry, Polly Atatoa Carr, Elizabeth R. Peterson, Karen E. Waldie, Emma Marks, Stephanie D’Souza and Susan M. B. Morton

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. Unfortunately, there are limited multi-center data on common viral respiratory infections in sou...

    Authors: Yajie Zhang, Lin Qiao, Jinxiu Yao, Nan Yu, Xiaoping Mu, Shengqi Huang, Bo Hu, Weixuan Li, Feng Qiu, Fangyin Zeng, Cong Chen, Yuqiu Zhou, Bashan Zhang, Tian Cai, Weijia Wang, Xianjin Wu…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:284

    Content type: Research

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  6. Hereditary cancer susceptibility syndrome (HCSS) contributes to the cancer predisposition at an early age, therefore, identification of HCSS has found to be crucial for surveillance, managing therapeutic inter...

    Authors: Sara Aslam, Shabana and Mehboob Ahmed

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research

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  7. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature newborns. In this study, we aim to compare the reintubation rate in preterm babies with RDS who were extub...

    Authors: Alaa Masry, Nuha A. M. A. Nimeri, Olfa Koobar, Samer Hammoudeh, Prem Chandra, Einas E. Elmalik, Amr M. Khalil, Nasir Mohammed, Nazla A. M. Mahmoud, Lisa J. Langtree and Mohammad A. A. Bayoumi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:281

    Content type: Research

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  8. Evidence for periconceptional or prenatal environmental risk factors for the development of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is still scarce. Here, in a case-control study we investigated potential enviro...

    Authors: Felicitas Schulz, Ekkehart Jenetzky, Nadine Zwink, Charlotte Bendixen, Florian Kipfmueller, Neysan Rafat, Andreas Heydweiller, Lucas Wessel, Heiko Reutter, Andreas Mueller and Thomas Schaible

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:278

    Content type: Research

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  9. Organ size is influenced by a number of factors. Age, height, weight, and ethnicity are known influencing factors. Pediatric populations have changed over time, puberty beginning earlier resulting in a changin...

    Authors: Stephan Waelti, Tim Fischer, Simon Wildermuth, Sebastian Leschka, Tobias Dietrich, Sabine Guesewell, Pascal Mueller, Michael Ditchfield and Stefan Markart

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:276

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Several factors like altitude, age, sex, pregnancy, socioeconomic status, life style and race influence hematological reference interval (RIs), which are critical to support clinical decisions and to interpret...

    Authors: Ammanuel Angelo, Girma Derbie, Asrat Demtse and Aster Tsegaye

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:275

    Content type: Research

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  11. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) continues to be a major contributor to infant mortality in the United States. The objective was to analyze time trends in SUID and their association with immunization cove...

    Authors: Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Konrad Neumann, Thomas Keil, Stefan N. Willich and Sylvia Binting

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:274

    Content type: Research

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  12. Childhood obesity increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease marked by elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This study investigated the prevalence of increased ALT in children and adolescents ...

    Authors: Resthie R. Putri, Thomas Casswall and Emilia Hagman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:271

    Content type: Research

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  13. This study aimed to provide UK data describing the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) surgery in the neonatal population, including: pre-ligation management, and outcomes until discharge. We used Brit...

    Authors: A. Warnock, L. Szatkowski, A. Lakshmanan, L. Lee and W. Kelsall

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:270

    Content type: Research

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  14. Genome wide gene expression analysis has revealed hints for independent immunological pathways underlying the pathophysiologies of phlegmonous (PA) and gangrenous appendicitis (GA). Methods of artificial intel...

    Authors: Josephine Reismann, Natalie Kiss and Marc Reismann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:268

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case ...

    Authors: Mohammad Rubayet Hasan, Khaled Al Zubaidi, Karim Diab, Yahia Hejazi, Sharon Bout-Tabaku, Buthaina Al-Adba, Eman Al Maslamani, Mohammad Janahi, Diane Roscoe, Andres Perez Lopez and Patrick Tang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:267

    Content type: Research

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  16. Newborn morbidity and mortality are forecasted using the Apgar scores. Obstetricians worldwide have used the Apgar score for more than half a century for the assessment of immediate newborn conditions. It is a...

    Authors: Alex Yeshaneh, Andargachew Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes Kassa, Daniel Adane, Yohannes Fikadu, Semahegn Tilahun Wassie, Biresaw Wassihun Alemu, Mesfin Tadese, Solomon Shitu and Haimanot Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:266

    Content type: Research

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  17. Spontaneous infection of preexisting solitary renal cysts has been documented in adults but is extremely rare in children. To date, no cases of simple renal cysts infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae have been ...

    Authors: Yoji Uejima, Hideki Niimi, Reiko Kato, Mihoko Furuichi, Satoshi Sato, Isao Kitajima, Yutaka Kawano, Tsutomu Oh-Ishi, Hiroshi Kawashima and Eisuke Suganuma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:265

    Content type: Case report

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  18. There is no data on the number as well as the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Fars province. Hence, we designed this study to analyze the latest data and the possible predictive factors on ...

    Authors: Ashkan Habib, Alireza Shojazadeh, Mohadeseh Molayemat, Asadollah Habib, Marjan Jeddi, Rita Arabsolghar, Mitra Nahas, Nazila Rahimi and Fariba Moradi Ardekani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:264

    Content type: Research

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  19. Girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to excess fetal adrenal androgens in-utero, and often born with masculinised genitalia. They are conventionally reared as females, but show...

    Authors: Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Umesh Jayarajah, Shamaali Gunawardana, Malik Samarasinghe and Shamya de Silva

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:262

    Content type: Research

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  20. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects as many as 100,000 infants each year in China. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces HIE related mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. Nation...

    Authors: Zheng Wang, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Zhou, Shiwen Xia, Wei Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhou, Xiuyong Cheng, Yuan Shi, Zhenlang Lin, Dongli Song and Guoqiang Cheng

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:261

    Content type: Research article

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  21. For evidence-based decision making, primary care physicians need to have specific and reliable information on the pre-test probabilities of underlying diseases and a symptom’s course. We performed a systematic...

    Authors: Milena Bergmann, Jörg Haasenritter, Dominik Beidatsch, Sonja Schwarm, Kaja Hörner, Stefan Bösner, Paula Grevenrath, Laura Schmidt, Annika Viniol, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff and Annette Becker

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research

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  22. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causing jaundice is common in East Asian population. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase isoenzyme (UGT1A1) glucuronidates bilirubin and converts the toxic form of bilirubin...

    Authors: Hui Yang, Fen Lin, Zi-kai Chen, Lin Zhang, Jia-Xin Xu, Yong-Hao Wu, Jing-Ying Gu, Yu-Bin Ma, Jian-Dong Li and Li-Ye Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:259

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal symptoms are common presenting features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and can overlap with infectious or inflammatory abdominal conditions, ...

    Authors: Michelle Hwang, Kelsey Wilson, Lisa Wendt, Joshua Pohlman, Emily Densmore, Caitlin Kaeppler, Kyle Van Arendonk and Sarah Yale

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:258

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a heterogeneous group of chronic encephalopathies characterized by epilepsy with comorbid intellectual disability that are frequently associated with de ...

    Authors: Qingyun Kang, Liming Yang, Hongmei Liao, Sai Yang, Xiaojun Kuang, Zeshu Ning, Caishi Liao and Bo Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:256

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  25. Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 10q11-q22 was a genomic disorder distinguished by developmental delay, congenital cleft palate and muscular hypotonia. The phenotypes involved were heterogeneous, hing...

    Authors: Dalin Fu, Weisheng Lin, Fen Lu, Senjie Du, Min Zhu, Xiaoke Zhao, Jian Tang, Chuan Chen, Xiaoli Chui, Shanmei Tang, Kai Wang, Chuanchun Yang and Bei Han

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:254

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  26. Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in RAB27A gene. It is primarily characterized by a combination of partial albinism, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HL...

    Authors: Qing Zhang, Yun-Ze Zhao, Hong-Hao Ma, Dong Wang, Nan Zhang, Zhi-Gang Li and Rui Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:253

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Racial/ethnic disparities in the use of opioids to treat pain disorders have been previously reported in the emergency department (ED). Further research is needed to better evaluate the impact race/ethnicity m...

    Authors: Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Candice Donaldson, Michelle Fortier, Brooke Jenkins, Erik Linstead and Zeev Kain

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:252

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Authors: Patricio Solis-Urra, Jorge Olivares-Arancibia, Ernesto Suarez-Cadenas, Javier Sanchez-Martinez, Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Francisco B. Ortega, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Jose Castro-Piñero, Alejandro Veloz, Steren Chabert, Kabir P. Sadarangani, Juan Pablo Zavala-Crichton, Jairo H. Migueles, Jose Mora-Gonzalez, Milton Quiroz-Escobar…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:251

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2019 19:260

  29. Pediatric obesity is one of the most important health challenges of the twenty-first century. Primary prevention of childhood obesity, can lessen its consequences. This study aims to assess childhood obesity p...

    Authors: Shahnaz Taghizadeh, Rahim Khodayari-Zarnaq and Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:250

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Scabies is a neglected tropical disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows under the skin. It is a major health problem in tropical areas, largely affecting children. Scabies is common and highly c...

    Authors: Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Mehdi Zare and Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:249

    Content type: Research

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  31. Rickets is not an unusual diagnosis for pediatricians even currently in developed countries. Children typically present with leg bowing, enlargement of wrists, rachitic rosary (swelling of costochondral juncti...

    Authors: Patricia Diaz Escagedo, Melissa Fiscaletti, Patricia Olivier, Chloé Hudon, Valancy Miranda, Marie-Claude Miron, Philippe M. Campeau and Nathalie Alos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:248

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  32. The idea of the ‘30 million word gap’ suggests families from more socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds engage in more verbal interactions with their child than disadvantaged families. Initial findings from...

    Authors: Mary E. Brushe, John Lynch, Sheena Reilly, Edward Melhuish, Murthy N. Mittinty and Sally A. Brinkman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:247

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Childhood obesity represents a global public health crisis: the number of obese children and adolescents (aged 5–19 years) worldwide has risen tenfold in the past four decades. The vast majority of overweight ...

    Authors: C. Homs, P. Berruezo, G. Según, L. Estrada, J. de Bont, J. Riera-Romaní, E. Carrillo-Álvarez, H. Schröder, R. Milà and S. F. Gómez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:246

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  34. Overweight can be a precursor of poor motor execution, negatively impacting the overall development of school-aged children on various levels. This study determined the long-term influences of overweight on pe...

    Authors: Elna de Waal and Anita Elizabeth Pienaar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:245

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. To evaluate the impact of compliance on the therapeutic effects of Desmopressin, as well as the importance of establishing the voiding school for low-compliance children in primary monosymptomatic enuresis tre...

    Authors: Zoran Radojicic, Sasa Milivojevic, Irena Koricanac, Jelena Milin Lazovic, Darko Laketic, Ognjen Radojicic and Natasa Milic

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:244

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. There are few non-invasive monitoring methods that can reliably predict fluid responsiveness (FR) in children. Here, we interrogate the value of doppler ultrasound evaluation of passive leg raising (PLR)-induc...

    Authors: Deqiang Luo, Wei Dai, Lei Lei and Xueying Cai

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:243

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Spinal arteriovenous malformations in children are extremely rare and pose great risk for intraoperative hemorrhage. Congenital syphilis sometimes presents with vascular symptoms, however, there is little publ...

    Authors: Mia J. Bertoli, Kruti Parikh, David Klyde, Catherine A. Mazzola and Shridevi Pandya Shah

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:242

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  38. To establish reference intervals for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in an ethnically diverse community sample of Canadian children 36 months and younger.

    Authors: Jemila S. Hamid, Eshetu G. Atenafu, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Catherine S. Birken, Jonathon L. Maguire, Mary Kathryn Bohn, Khosrow Adeli, Mohamed Abdelhaleem and Patricia C. Parkin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:241

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Suboptimal child nutrition remains the main factor underlying child undernutrition in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet and associated fac...

    Authors: Richard Mbusa Kambale, Gaylord Amani Ngaboyeka, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Sarah Niyitegeka, Boss Rutakaza Cinkenye, Armand Baruti, Kizito Chentwali Mutuga and Dimitri Van der Linden

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:239

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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