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  1. Strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young athletes have become topical worldwide and unrecognized cardiac pathology has been identified as a leading cause. Black ethnicity has been reported ...

    Authors: Ogochukwu J. Sokunbi, Christy A. N. Okoromah, Ekanem N. Ekure, Olajide A. Olawale and Wuraola S. Eke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The emerging of psychological problems triggered by COVID-19 particularly in children have been extensively highlighted and emphasized, but original research in this respect is still lagging behind. Therefore,...

    Authors: Zhongren Ma, Sakinah Idris, Yinxia Zhang, Liu Zewen, Amaad Wali, Yunpeng Ji, Qiuwei Pan and Zulqarnain Baloch

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Dietary counseling can play an important role in managing child malnutrition but is often inadequate or absent. Moreover, little emphasis is given to the usefulness of local available foods in the rehabilitati...

    Authors: Andrea Pietravalle, Martina Scilipoti, Francesco Cavallin, Magda Lonardi, Ivo Makonga Tshikamb, Claudia Robbiati, Daniele Trevisanuto and Giovanni Putoto

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research Article

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  4. Urticaria is common in pediatric population and is caused by various etiologies which usually differ among different age groups. The different etiologies require different management strategies. Thus, understa...

    Authors: Leelawadee Techasatian, Pariwat Phungoen, Jitjira Chaiyarit and Rattapon Uppala

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research Article

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  5. In neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with intubation status, fluoroscopic evaluation for the bowel is limited. This study was to evaluate the utility of bedside upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series w...

    Authors: Choeum Kang, Haesung Yoon, Hyun Joo Shin, Ho Sun Eun, Kook In Park and Mi-Jung Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Due to the lack of a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method, aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, MP) is a constantly challenging issue. This retrospective s...

    Authors: Mingyu Tang, Dong Wang, Xing Tong, Yufen Wu, Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yong Yin and Qing Cao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Neonatal mortality contributes to nearly half of child deaths globally and the majority of these deaths are preventable. Poor quality of care is a major driver of neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income c...

    Authors: David Tuyisenge, Samuel Byiringiro, M. Louise Manirakiza, Robert G. Mutsinzi, Alphonse Nshimyiryo, Merab Nyishime, Lisa R. Hirschhorn, Francois Biziyaremye, Joseph Gitera, Kathryn Beck and Catherine M. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Rotavirus is considered the main causal factor of severe gastroenteritis among infants and children globally. The association with severe rotavirus infection is mostly worse among the least developed countries...

    Authors: James Atampiiga Avoka, Elvis J. Dun-Dery, Issah Seidu, Armel N. E. Abou, Paul Twene, Isaac Obeng Tandoh and Frederick Dun-Dery

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cornell assessment of pediatric delirium (CAPD) showed advantage in diagnosis of pediatric delirium in Chinese critically ill patients. But its performance in surgical patients is still unclear. The present st...

    Authors: Hong Hong, Chao Guo, Zhi-Hua Liu, Bo-Jie Wang, Shu-Zhe Zhou, Dong-Liang Mu and Dong-Xin Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  10. During the second and third year after birth the gut microbiota (GM) is subjected to important development. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure could influence the GM in animal and early postnat...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Zhongqing Sun, Qian Zhang, Zhitao Sun, Ya Su, Jiahui Song, Bingling Wang and Ruqin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Until now, diabetes during pregnancy has been associated with a high risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidities and mortalities. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of hypoglycem...

    Authors: Ahlam M. Saber, Magdy A. Mohamed, Abdelrahim A. Sadek and Ramadan A. Mahmoud

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:85

    Content type: Original Article

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  12. Moderately-late preterm (MLP) children (gestational age [GA] 32–36 weeks) are followed-up within community services, which often use developmental milestones as indicators of delay. We aimed to examine associa...

    Authors: Nienke H. van Dokkum, Sijmen A. Reijneveld, Arend F. Bos and Marlou L. A. de Kroon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research Article

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  13. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether introduction of oral feeding for infants and children receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) or high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) re...

    Authors: Angie Canning, Sally Clarke, Sarah Thorning, Manbir Chauhan and Kelly A Weir

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:83

    Content type: Original Article

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  14. As sleep-related difficulties are a growing public health concern, it is important to gain an overview of the specific difficulty areas of the most vulnerable individuals: children. The current descriptive stu...

    Authors: Christiane Lewien, Jon Genuneit, Christof Meigen, Wieland Kiess and Tanja Poulain

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Every year an estimated 7.9 million babies are born with birth defect. Of these babies, more than 3 million die and 3.2 million have disability. Improving nationwide information on prevalence of birth defect, ...

    Authors: Prajwal Paudel, Avinash K. Sunny, Rejina Gurung, Abhishek Gurung, Honey Malla, Netra B. Rana, Nawaraj KC, Ram Narayan Chaudhary and Ashish KC

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:81

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of children could indicate the potential of an exercise therapy to treat or prevent obesity. However, EPOC as a result of playing active video games (AVG) has bee...

    Authors: Caio Victor Sousa, Jungyun Hwang, Herbert Gustavo Simoes, Kyung Jin Sun and Amy Shirong Lu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:80

    Content type: Original Article

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  17. Our aim was to investigate if moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), calcium intake interacts with bone mineral density (BMD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to influence BMD in 750 Hisp...

    Authors: Ruixue Hou, Shelley A. Cole, Mariaelisa Graff, Yujie Wang, Karin Haack, Sandra Laston, Nitesh R. Mehta, Roman J. Shypailo, Margaret L. Gourlay, Anthony G. Comuzzie, Kari E. North, Nancy F. Butte and Venkata Saroja Voruganti

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:79

    Content type: Original Article

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  18. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under-5 years old in Ghana. The aim of the study was to assess factors associated with diarrhoea and ARI ...

    Authors: Paschal Awingura Apanga and Maxwell Tii Kumbeni

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:78

    Content type: Original Article

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  19. Down syndrome (DS) is associated with various congenital anomalies and metabolic alterations, such as dyslipidemias, that can lead to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. This study was designed to describe th...

    Authors: Silvestre Garcia-de la Puente, Karla A. Flores-Arizmendi, María J. Delgado-Montemayor and Tania T. Vargas-Robledo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:77

    Content type: Original Article

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  20. Although the World Health Organization has recommended the diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in child household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases, the national progr...

    Authors: Roxana Mansour Ghanaie, Abdollah Karimi, Leila Azimi, Seddon James, Mahshid Nasehi, Abolfazl Panahi Mishkar, Mahnaz Sheikhi, Fatemeh Fallah, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei and Seyedeh Mahsan Hoseini-Alfatemi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:76

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The treatment of high-grade (III/IV/V) blunt pancreatic injuries remains controversial. The study aims to summarize and evaluate nonresection management of the pancreas for grade III and IV blunt pancreatic in...

    Authors: Dan Zhang, Jiayu Yan, Sarah Tan Siyin, Wenbo Pang and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:75

    Content type: Original Article

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  22. Head circumference (HC) measurement is routinely not performed in early childhood and there is conflicting information about its utility in literature. The current study analyses the association between HC at ...

    Authors: Beena Koshy, Manikandan Srinivasan, Timiri Palani Murugan, Anuradha Bose, Pamela Christudoss, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Sushil John, Reeba Roshan and Gagandeep Kang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:74

    Content type: Original Article

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  23. Screen use is increasing rapidly among preschool children and excess screen use in these children has been associated with cognitive side effects and speech delay. We undertook this study to estimate the risk ...

    Authors: Jijo Joseph John, Reny Joseph, Alice David, Ann Bejoy, Kalyan Varghese George and Lisa George

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:73

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and potentially fatal syndrome that is characterized by strong activation of the immune system from hyperinflammatory cytokines. Symptoms of HLH patients incl...

    Authors: Fahad Alabbas, Ghaleb Elyamany, Talal Alanzi, Tahani Bin Ali, Fatma Albatniji and Huda Alfaraidi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:72

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Cognitive abilities like language, memory, reasoning, visualization, and perceptual functioning shape human action and are considered critical to the successful interaction with the environment. Alternatively,...

    Authors: Fidaa Almomani, Murad O. Al-momani, Soha Garadat, Safa Alqudah, Manal Kassab, Shereen Hamadneh, Grant Rauterkus and Richard Gans

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:71

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of WS in four probands from four different Iranian families.

    Authors: Safoura Zardadi, Sima Rayat, Maryam Hassani Doabsari, Aliagha Alishiri, Mohammad Keramatipour, Zeynab Javanfekr Shahri and Saeid Morovvati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:70

    Content type: Case report

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  27. Preterm infants and infants with perinatal brain injury show a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) is a clinical assessment which evaluates the complexity of ...

    Authors: Riccardo Rizzi, Valentina Menici, Maria Luce Cioni, Alessandra Cecchi, Veronica Barzacchi, Elena Beani, Matteo Giampietri, Giovanni Cioni and Giuseppina Sgandurra

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:68

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are congenital tumors that affect around 50 % of the subjects with neurofibromatosis type 1. Despite being histologically benign, PNs can grow rapidly, especially in the pediatric...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Andrea Magnolato, Egidio Barbi and Irene Bruno

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:67

    Content type: Case report

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  29. This study aimed to retrospectively analyze the correlation between congenital abnormality of the urogenital system and various factors in children with neural tube defects (NTDs).

    Authors: Zhi-Hua Hong, Dong-Hui Jin, Xiao-Jian Yuan, Yang Zhao, Hou-Wei Lin and Jie Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The incidence of pertussis shows an increasing trend in recent years, but some clinicians often lack sufficient understanding of the clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe pertussis, and more eff...

    Authors: Caiying Wang, Huimin Zhang, Yanlan Zhang, Lin Xu, Min Miao, Hongling Yang, Yuhuan Liu, Shuxin He and Lin Pang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:65

    Content type: Research article

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  31. For newborns and infants wearing diapers the difficulties in characterizing the appearance of the stool are significant, since the changes in consistency, quantity, and color of the stool are higher than in ot...

    Authors: Laura Cantisano de Deus Silva, Priscila Monaro Bianchini, Erika Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Juliana Fattori Hamamoto, Rosemary Fermiano, Rebeca Mayara Padilha Rego, João César Lyra, Marc Alexander Benninga and Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:64

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The effect of biologic therapy on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related hospitalizations is controversial. The high efficacy of biologic agents is weighted against potential therapy-related...

    Authors: Gil Berkovitch, Shlomi Cohen, Ronit Lubetzky, Dana Singer and Anat Yerushalmy-Feler

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:63

    Content type: Research article

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  33. To explore the association between cesarean section (CS) and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and evaluate the possible factors influencing this association.

    Authors: Ye Yang, Jingjing Lin, Xiaozi Lu, Guanglei Xun, Renrong Wu, Yamin Li, Jianjun Ou, Yidong Shen, Kun Xia and Jingping Zhao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:62

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Nowadays, it is generally assumed that non-pharmacologic pain relief in preterm infants is an important measure to consider. Research findings suggest that familiar odors have soothing effects for neonates. Th...

    Authors: Zahra Akbarian Rad, Parvin Aziznejadroshan, Adeleh Saebi Amiri, Hemmat Gholinia Ahangar and Zahra Valizadehchari

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:61

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Little is known about the progression of obesity from childhood to adolescence. This study aimed to longitudinally examine the obesity status in a cohort of children across their childhood and adolescence, and...

    Authors: Joanna Yuet-ling Tung, Frederick Ka-wing Ho, Keith Tsz-suen Tung, Rosa Sze-man Wong, Wilfred Hing-sang Wong, Bik-chu Chow and Patrick Ip

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:60

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Depression in children presents a significant health burden to society and often co-exists with chronic illnesses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research has demonstrated that 10–37% of children ...

    Authors: Agnes Binagwaho, Eric Remera, Alice Uwase Bayingana, Darius Gishoma, Kirstin Woody Scott, Madeline Goosman, Eliza Campbell, Mawuena Agbonyitor, Yvonne Kayiteshonga and Sabin Nsanzimana

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The WHO’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has resulted in progress in addressing infant and child mortality. However, unmet needs of children continue to present a burden upon primary healthc...

    Authors: Robyn Curran, Jamie Murdoch, Max Bachmann, Eric Bateman, Ruth Cornick, Sandra Picken, Makhosazana Lungile Simelane and Lara Fairall

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. An Anorectal Malformation (ARM) is a rare congenital malformation, which requires proper correction to ensure the best long-term prognosis. These procedures are relatively infrequent and complex, in which a st...

    Authors: J. A. van Ling, G. M. J. Bökkerink, I. de Blaauw and S. M. B. I. Botden

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:57

    Content type: Technical advance

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  39. It is shown that meeting the increased nutritional demand of preterm infants from birth is not only important for survival but essentially contributes to the infants` overall development and long-term health.

    Authors: Edda Hofstätter, Verena Köttstorfer, Patricia Stroicz, Sebastian Schütz, Lorenz Auer-Hackenberg, Johannes Brandner and Martin Wald

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:56

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Population-based studies analyzing neonatal deaths in middle-income countries may contribute to design interventions to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, established by United Nations. This study goal...

    Authors: Ruth Guinsburg, Adriana Sanudo, Carlos Roberto V Kiffer, Ana Sílvia S Marinonio, Daniela T Costa-Nobre, Kelsy N Areco, Mandira D Kawakami, Milton H Miyoshi, Paulo Bandiera-Paiva, Rita de Cássia X Balda, Tulio Konstantyner, Liliam CC Morais, Rosa MV Freitas, Mônica LP Teixeira, Bernadette Waldvogel and Maria Fernanda B Almeida

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:54

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in children is hindered by variable sensitivity of clinical criteria and rapid Strep A tests (SAT), resulting in reliance on throat cultures as the gold standa...

    Authors: Salama Bin Hendi, Zainab A. Malik, Amar Hassan Khamis and Fadil Y. A. Al-Najjar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:52

    Content type: Research article

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  42. We aimed to study the effectiveness of preoperative thyroid hormone levels in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD).

    Authors: Di Yu, Liang Zou, Yueshuang Cun, Yaping Li, Qingfeng Wang, Yaqin Shu and Xuming Mo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:50

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is identified in numerous medical conditions associated with allergic, infectious, and inflammatory processes mostly as reactive eosinophilia with or without tissue eosinophilia. ...

    Authors: Cheong-Jun Moon, Tae Hee Kwon and Hyun-Seung Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:49

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Surviving children born at 23 gestational weeks are a growing population. As many of these children face developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, more knowledge is needed about the everyday l...

    Authors: Anniina Väliaho, Liisa Lehtonen, Anna Axelin and Riikka Korja

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:48

    Content type: Research article

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