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  1. Birth asphyxia is one of the significant causes of neonatal deaths in Pakistan. Poor newborn resuscitation skills of birth attendants are a major cause of neonatal mortality in low resource settings across the...

    Authors: Kiran Mubeen, Marina Baig, Sadia Abbas, Farzana Adnan, Arusa Lakhani, Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Bushra Rehman, Shahnaz Shahid and Rafat Jan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:555

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. Antibiotics still continue to be prescribed although most URTIs are of viral origin. This is inappropriate use and this unnecessary administra...

    Authors: Aslınur Albayrak, Nazmi Mutlu Karakaş and Bensu Karahalil

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:554

    Content type: Research

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  3. To investigate the association between geographic, clinical, socioeconomic factors and delayed management of pediatric testicular torsion (TT) in West China.

    Authors: Chengjun Yu, Jie Zhao, Jiandong Lu, Yi Wei, Li Jiang, Tianxin Zhao, Tao Lin, Dawei He, Sheng Wen, Shengde Wu and Guanghui Wei

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:553

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Early childhood is a transferring stage between the two accelerated growth periods (infant and adolescent). Body dimensions are related to physical growth and development. The purpose of this study was to inve...

    Authors: Sudarat Apibantaweesakul, Shiho Omura, Weihuang Qi, Hiroto Shiotani, Pavlos E. Evangelidis, Natsuki Sado, Fumiko Tanaka and Yasuo Kawakami

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:552

    Content type: Research

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  5. Stunting remains one of the most common malnutrition problems among children in Ethiopia. Identifying the risk factors of stunting assists health planners to prioritize prevention strategies, and is a fundamen...

    Authors: Temesgen Tafesse, Amanuel Yoseph, Kaleb Mayiso and Taye Gari

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:551

    Content type: Research

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  6. Whether surgery can improve the prognosis of patients with primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma (PPGL) who experienced bowel perforation remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the prognosis...

    Authors: Jiayu Yan, Yanlong Duan, Tingting Liu, Jianlin Guo, Chunhui Peng, Wenbo Pang, Dan Zhang, Yun Peng and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:548

    Content type: Research

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  7. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-03000-8.

    Authors: Jing Wen, Ting Yang, Jiang Zhu, Min Guo, Xi Lai, Ting Tang, Li Chen, Jie Chen, Ming Xue and Tingyu Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:547

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:299

  8. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic encephalopathy that can be caused by brain malformations or genetic mutations. Recently, genome-wide association studies have led to the identification of no...

    Authors: Yang Tian, Zhen Shi, Chi Hou, Wenjuan Li, Xiuying Wang, Haixia Zhu, Xiaojing Li and Wen-Xiong Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:546

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  9. Early and accurate diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia in primary health care can reduce the chance of long-term respiratory diseases, related hospitalizations and mortality while lowering medical costs. The aim ...

    Authors: Jinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Mingqi Zhou, Guo-Bo Chen, Jing Du, Ying Wang and Chengyin Ye

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:545

    Content type: Research

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  10. Although, there is no population-level data in Ethiopia, a previous retrospective hospital-based study identified CP as the most common developmental disability in children. The overall aim of this study is to...

    Authors: Selamenesh Tsige, Ayalew Moges, Amha Mekasha, Workeabeba Abebe and Hans Forssberg

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:544

    Content type: Research

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  11. To analyze the possible causes, treatment and outcomes of postoperative pneumothorax in patients with Gross type C esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF).

    Authors: Jiawei Zhao, Shen Yang, Siqi Li, Peize Wang, Yanan Zhang, Yong Zhao, Kaiyun Hua, Yichao Gu, Junmin Liao, Shuangshuang Li, Yongwei Chen and Jinshi Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:543

    Content type: Research

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  12. Anemia is a major health problem in the worldwide. Because of health and socioeconomic problems, the prevalence of anemia is higher in developing countries. However, there was a limited finding in our study ar...

    Authors: Destaw Kebede, Fantahun Getaneh, Kirubel Endalamaw, Tariku Belay and Abebe Fenta

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:542

    Content type: Research

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  13. Poor weight gain in the first few weeks of life has been studied as a predictor of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Our aim was to assess whether time taken to regain birthweight (BW) be used as an additional...

    Authors: Ajay Anvekar, Sam Athikarisamy, Shripada Rao, Andy Gill, Elizabeth Nathan, Dorota Doherty and Geoffrey Lam

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:540

    Content type: Research

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  14. The study aim was to obtain epidemiological data on vitamin D levels for the pediatric population in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 2-year-old Japanese children ...

    Authors: Limin Yang, Miori Sato, Mayako Saito-Abe, Makoto Irahara, Minaho Nishizato, Hatoko Sasaki, Mizuho Konishi, Kazue Ishitsuka, Hidetoshi Mezawa, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada and Yukihiro Ohya

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:539

    Content type: Article

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  15. Children with congenital heart disease are at risk for poor growth and under-nutrition compared with healthy children. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of children with congenital hea...

    Authors: Rediet Woldesenbet, Rajalakshmi Murugan, Feven Mulugeta and Tamirat Moges

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:538

    Content type: Research

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  16. Neonatal mortality remains high in Tanzania at approximately 20 deaths per 1000 live births. Low birthweight, prematurity, and asphyxia are associated with neonatal mortality; however, no studies have assessed...

    Authors: Dory Kovacs, Delfina R. Msanga, Stephen E. Mshana, Muhammad Bilal, Katarina Oravcova and Louise Matthews

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:537

    Content type: Research

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  17. It has been proven that gut microbiota alterations are involved in the development of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP). However, the pathogenesis of HSP hasn’t been eluciated. This study was to investigate the i...

    Authors: Jin-kun Wang, Bo Yan, Jun-mei Zhao and Li-ping Yuan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:536

    Content type: Research

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  18. Intrapartum-related hypoxic events, or birth asphyxia, causes one-fourth of neonatal deaths globally and in Mesoamerica. Multidimensional care for asphyxia must be implemented to ensure timely and effective ca...

    Authors: Aruna M. Kamath, Maximilian G. Thom, Casey K. Johanns, Katie Panhorst Harris, Karla Schwarzbauer, José C. Ochoa, Paola Zuniga-Brenes, Diego Rios-Zertuche, Ali H. Mokdad and Bernardo Hernandez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:534

    Content type: Research

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  19. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is the commonest monogenic haematologic disorder resulting from the inheritance of homozygous mutant haemoglobin genes from both parents. Some factors have been identified as importan...

    Authors: Osita Ezenwosu, Barth Chukwu, Ifeyinwa Ezenwosu, Ndubuisi Uwaezuoke, Christopher Eke, Maria Udorah, Chinedu Idoko, Anthony Ikefuna and Ifeoma Emodi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:533

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Globally, in 2017, there were nearly 1.7 billion cases of childhood diarrheal diseases, and it is the second most important cause of morbidity and mortality among under-five children in low-income countries, i...

    Authors: Dejene Mosisa, Mecha Aboma, Teka Girma and Abera Shibru

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:532

    Content type: Research

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  21. With the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, along with the development of new mutations of the virus and an increase in the number of cases among pediatrics, physicians should be aware and alerte...

    Authors: Reza Abbasi, Farnaz Sadat Javanmardi, Ahmad Mokhtari, Parisa Hosseinpour, Reza Shahriarirad and Kamyar Ebrahimi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:531

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is an extremely rare neoplasm in children; by definition, it manifests in the breast without evidence of lymphoma elsewhere, except ipsilateral axillary nodes.

    Authors: Giulia A. Restivo, Marta Pillon, Lara Mussolin, Clara Mosa, Angela Guarina, Angela Trizzino, Salvatore Ialuna, Elisa Carraro, Emanuele S.G. D’Amore, Giovanna Russo, Caterina Elia, Maurizio Mascarin, Adriana Zangara, Paolo D’Angelo and Piero Farruggia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:530

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Severe or critical congenital heart defects (CHDs) constitute one third of the heart defect cases detected only after birth. These prenatally unrecognised defects usually manifest as cyanotic or acyanotic lesi...

    Authors: Jan Pavlicek, Eva Klaskova, Sabina Kapralova, Alzbeta Moravova Palatova, Alicja Piegzova, Richard Spacek and Tomas Gruszka

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:528

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among children and associated with symptoms in a fifth with the condition. This study aimed to synthesise outcome measures in interventional or prospec...

    Authors: Muhammad Maarj, Andrea Coda, Louise Tofts, Cylie Williams, Derek Santos and Verity Pacey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:527

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Perinatal asphyxia is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. Understanding associated factors of perinatal asphyxia are important to identify vulnerable groups and to improv...

    Authors: Addisu Ginbu Dubie, Mehretie Kokeb, Abraham Tarkegn Mersha and Chilot Desta Agegnehu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:525

    Content type: Research

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  26. Low-cost commercial bCPAP devices have been deployed in resource-limited settings to treat neonatal respiratory failure. The use of these devices has increased access to pediatric respiratory support for infan...

    Authors: Nicholas A. Ettinger, Nathan Serazin, Richard Nguyen, Jennifer Werdenberg, Minke Huibers and Susan Torrey

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:524

    Content type: Research

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  27. Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities in male newborn. There is no universal approach to hypospadias surgical repair, with more than 300 corrective procedures described in current lite...

    Authors: Pier Luca Ceccarelli, Laura Lucaccioni, Francesca Poluzzi, Anastasia Bianchini, Diego Biondini, Lorenzo Iughetti and Barbara Predieri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:523

    Content type: Research

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  28. The focus of clinical care after treating congenital heart disease (CHD) has shifted from saving patients’ lives to improving their quality of life. This study aimed to examine the influence of minimally invas...

    Authors: Hui Tan, Erjia Huang, Xicheng Deng, Dongping Li and Shayuan Ouyang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:522

    Content type: Research article

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  29. To evaluate trends in the in-hospital mortality rate for pediatric cardiac surgery procedures between 2005 and 2017 in our center, and to discuss the mortality characteristics of children’s CHD after thoracotomy.

    Authors: Guilang Zheng, Jiaxing Wu, Peiling Chen, Yan Hu, Huiqiong Zhang, Jing Wang, Hanshi Zeng, Xufeng Li, Yueyu Sun, Gang Xu, Shusheng Wen, Jianzheng Cen, Jimei Chen, Yuxiong Guo and Jian Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:521

    Content type: Research

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  30. Fatigue is common among adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as children with a chronic disease (CCD). Fatigue can have disastrous effects on health status, including health related qu...

    Authors: A. M. ter Haar, M. M. Nap-van der Vlist, M. Van den Hof, S. L. Nijhof, R. R. L. van Litsenburg, K. J. Oostrom and D. Pajkrt

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:519

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The incidence of preterm birth and subsequent low birth weight (LBW) are vital global public health issues. It contributes to high infant and child mortality in the early stages of life and later on in adult l...

    Authors: Prem Shankar Mishra, Debashree Sinha, Pradeep Kumar, Shobhit Srivastava and Rahul Bawankule

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:518

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Late onset sepsis is a leading cause of death and morbidity in preterm infants. Despite optimal antibiotic treatment, sepsis related mortality and morbidity is still high. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanth...

    Authors: Serife Kurul, H. Rob Taal, Robert B. Flint, Jan Mazela, Irwin K. M. Reiss, Karel Allegaert and Sinno H. P. Simons

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:517

    Content type: Study protocol

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  33. The clinical presentation and severity of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) is widespread and presents a very low mortality rate in high-income countries. This rese...

    Authors: Lorena Acevedo, Byron Enrique Piñeres-Olave, Laura Fernanda Niño-Serna, Liliana Mazzillo Vega, Ivan Jose Ardila Gomez, Shayl Chacón, Juan Camilo Jaramillo-Bustamante, Hernando Mulett-Hoyos, Otto González-Pardo, Eliana Zemanate, Ledys Izquierdo, Jaime Piracoca Mejìa, Jose Luis Junco González, Beatriz Giraldo Duran, Carolina Bonilla Gonzalez, Helen Preciado…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:516

    Content type: Research

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  34. Substantial global progress has been made in reducing under-five mortality since 1990, yet progress is insufficient to meet the sustainable development goal of 2030 which calls for ending preventable child dea...

    Authors: Desalegn Tesfa, Sofonyas Abebaw Tiruneh, Melkalem Mamuye Azanaw, Alemayehu Digssie Gebremariam, Melaku Tadege Engdaw, Belayneh Kefale, Bedilu Abebe and Tsion Dessalegn

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:515

    Content type: Research

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  35. Globally, acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality. Currently, it is estimated that 50 million cases of childhood ARI are untreated. In this study, w...

    Authors: Leslie Danquah, Prince Michael Amegbor and Dawit Getnet Ayele

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:514

    Content type: Research

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  36. Information on exact causes of death and stillbirth are limited in low and middle income countries. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is increasingly practiced in place of autopsy across several settin...

    Authors: Manoja Kumar Das, Narendra Kumar Arora, Pradeep Debata, Harish Chellani, Reeta Rasaily, Harsha Gaikwad, K. R. Meena, Gurkirat Kaur, Prikanksha Malik, Shipra Joshi and Mahisha Kumari

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:513

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition resulting from pre-natal alcohol exposure. In Canada, an estimated 1.4-4% of newborns are affected by FASD. FASD is often associated wit...

    Authors: Michael-Roy R. Durr, Susan Petryk, Mansfield Mela, Andrea DesRoches, Mackenzie Wekerle and Sanjida Newaz

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:512

    Content type: Research

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  38. In the United States, childhood asthma prevalence is higher among low-income communities and Hispanic populations. Previous studies found that asthma education could improve health and quality of life, especia...

    Authors: Genny Carrillo, Taehyun Roh, Juha Baek, Betty Chong-Menard and Marcia Ory

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:510

    Content type: Research

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  39. Adolescence is a crucial period for the acquisition of good mental health behaviours, which are the foundation for health and wellbeing in later life. Improved knowledge about mental health and improved help-s...

    Authors: Nicola J. Simkiss, Nicola S. Gray, Chris Dunne and Robert J. Snowden

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:508

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Growth references are traditionally constructed relative to chronological age, despite inter-individual variations in pubertal timing. A new type of height reference was recently developed allowing growth to b...

    Authors: Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Aimon Niklasson, Lars Gelander, Anton Holmgren and Andreas F. M. Nierop

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:507

    Content type: Research

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  41. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is characterized by a diverse clinical picture. Children are often asymptomatic or exper...

    Authors: Julie Niemann Holm-Jacobsen, Julia Helena Vonasek, Søren Hagstrøm, Mette Line Donneborg and Suzette Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:506

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

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