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Table 2 Comparison of all patients by %FO group

From: Association between early fluid overload and mortality in critically-ill mechanically ventilated children: a single-center retrospective cohort study

Variable %FO ≤ 0% 0% < %FO ≤ 10% 10% < %FO ≤ 20% %FO>20% P-value
Number, N (%) 53 (17.2%) 125 (40.5%) 104 (33.6%) 27 (8.7%)  
Age (months, m), median (IQR) 42.4 (14.9–88.3) 18.5 (4.2–60.4)a,c 7.5 (4.4–19.9)a 5.8 (3.5–14.8)a <0.001
Weight (kg) 15.0 (9.5–25.0) 11.0 (6.6–19.5) 7.0 (5.4–11.0)a,b 5.8 (4.9–8.2)a,b <0.001
Gender, N (%)      0.747
Male 29 (54.7%) 77 (61.6%) 63 (60.6%) 18 (66.7%)  
Female 24 (45.3%) 48 (39.4%) 41 (39.4%) 9 (33.3%)  
Underlying disease, N (%) 26 (49.1%) 81 (64.8%) 84 (80.8%)a,b 23 (85.2%)a,b <0.001
Reason for PICU admission, N (%)      0.030
Medical, N (%) 39 (73.6%) 85 (68.0%) 57 (54.8%)a,b,d 21 (77.8%)  
Surgical, N (%) 14 (26.4%) 40 (32.0%) 47 (45.2%)a,b,d 6 (22.2%)  
Receipt of CRRT, N (%) 22 (41.5%) 25 (20.0%)a 7 (6.7%)a,b 5 (18.5%)a <0.001
Receipt of vasoactive drugs, N (%) 38 (71.7%) 62 (49.6%)a 41 (39.4%)a,d 17 (63.0%) 0.001
No. of vasoactive drugs, median (IQR) 2.0 (0.0–3.0)b,c 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 0.0 (0.0-1.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) <0.001
Diagnosis of MODS, N (%) 28 (52.8%)b,c 35 (28.0%) 19 (18.3%) 9 (33.3%) 0.001
PRISM-III scores, median (IQR) 8.0 (5.5–12.5)b,c 4.0 (2.5–8.0) 4.0 (1.0–8.0) 5.0 (2.0–10.0) 0.001
In-hospital mortality, N (%) 17 (32.1%) 31 (24.8%) 21 (20.2%) 12 (44.4%) 0.053
Time from hospital admission to PICU (days), median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.0 (0.0–4.5) 1.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.0 (0.0–4.0) 0.356
LOS in PICU (days), median (IQR) 16.0 (9.0–22.0) 16.0 (9.0–27.0) 18.5 (10.0–31.0) 21.0 (9.0–32.0) 0.240
LOS in hospital (days), median (IQR) 27.0 (18.5–42.0) 25.0 (16.0–42.0) 30.0 (18.0–46.8) 27.0 (15.0–44.0) 0.240
Time of MV, median (IQR) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 0.780
Duration of MV (days), median (IQR) 5.0 (4.0–14.0) 6.0 (4.0–11.0) 7.0 (4.0–13.8) 7.0 (5.0–14.0) 0.733
Duration of first MV (days), median (IQR) 5.0 (4.0–13.0) 6.0 (4.0–10.0) 7.0 (4.0–12.0) 7.0 (5.0–14.0) 0.625
Proportion of patients receiving MV for more than 7 days, N (%) 20 (37.7%) 46 (36.8%) 47 (45.2%) 11 (10.8%) 0.616
Early FO, median (IQR) −3.7 (−6.9 to − 1.2) 5.8 (3.0–7.7) 14.2 (12.0–16.9) 23.1 (21.0–24.3)  
  1. LOS: length of stay; MV: mechanical ventilation; MODS: multiple organ dysfunction syndrome; CRRT: continuous renal replacement therapy; PRISM-III: third-generation admission pediatric risk of mortality score; PICU: pediatric intensive care unit; FO: fluid overload. No.: number. a: vs. %FO ≤ 0%; b: vs. 0%<%FO ≤ 10%; c: 10% < %FO ≤ 20%; d: vs. %FO > 20%. Continuous variables: P-values obtained by Kruskal–Wallis test; categorical variables: P-values obtained by Pearson chi-square test