Prescott S, Allen KJ. Food allergy: riding the second wave of the allergy epidemic. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:155–60.
Bjerg A, Sandström T, Lundbäck B, Rönmark E. Time trends in asthma and wheeze in Swedish children 1996–2006: prevalence and risk factors by sex. Allergy. 2010;65:48–55.
Zilmer M, Steen NP, Zachariassen G, Duus T, Kristiansen B, Halken S. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:385–9.
Hicke-Roberts A, Åberg N, Wennergren G, Hesselmar B. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis continued to increase in Swedish children up to 2007, but asthma and eczema levelled off from 1991. Acta Paediatr. 2017;106:75–80.
Lodge CJ, Allen KJ, Lowe AJ, Dharmage SC. Overview of evidence in prevention and aetiology of food allergy: a review of systematic reviews. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:5781–806.
McBride D, Keil T, Grabenhenrich L, Dubakiene R, Drasutiene G, Fiocchi A, et al. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:230–9.
Strinnholm Å, Winberg A, West C, Hedman L, Rönmark E. Food hypersensitivity is common in Swedish schoolchildren, especially oral reactions to fruit and gastrointestinal reactions to milk. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103:1290–6.
Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood: results from the DARC cohort. Allergy. 2009;64:1023–9.
Osborne NJ, Koplin JJ, Martin PE, Gurrin LC, Lowe AJ, Matheson MC, et al. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:668–76.
Venter C, Patil V, Grundy J, Glasbey G, Twiselton R, Arshad SH, Dean T. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of food hyper-sensitivity in the first 10 years of life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016;27:452–8.
Chen J, Hu Y, Allen KJ, Ho MH, Li H. The prevalence of food allergy in infants in Chongqing, China. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:356–60.
Hu Y, Chen J, Li H. Comparison of food allergy prevalence among Chinese infants in Chongqing, 2009 versus 1999. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:820–4.
du Toit G, Tsasok T, Lack S, Lack G. Prevention of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:998–1010.
Furuhjelm C, Warstedt K, Fagerås M, Fälth-Magnusson K, Larsson J, Fredriksson M, et al. Allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age in relation to plasma omega-3 fatty acids and maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2011;22:505–14.
Lack G. Update on risk factors for food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:1187–97.
Roduit C, Frei R, Depner M, Schaub B, Loss G, Genuneit J, et al. Increased food diversity in the first year of life is inversely associated with allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1056–64.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on nutrition, hypoallergenic infant formulas. Pediatrics. 2000;106:346–9.
Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW, Committee on Nutrition and Section on Allergy and Immunology. The effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic diseases in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, hydrolyzed formulas and timing of introduction of allergenic complementary foods. Pediatrics. 2019;143:e2019028.
Wennergren G. What if it is the other way around? Early introduction of peanut and fish seems to be better than avoidance. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1085–7.
Benedé S, Blázquez AB, Chiang D, Tordesillas L, Berin MC. The rise of food allergy: environmental factors and emerging treatments. EBioMedicine. 2016;7:27–34.
Obbagy JE, English LK, Wong YP, Butte NF, Dewey KG, Fleischer DM, et al. Complementary feeding and food allergy, atopic dermatitis/eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;109(Suppl. 7):890S–934S.
Åberg N, Engström I, Lindberg U. Allergic diseases in Swedish school children. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1989;78:246–52.
Åberg N, Hesselmar B, Åberg B, Eriksson B. Increase of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in Swedish schoolchildren between 1979 and 1991. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25:815–9.
Grimshaw KE, Bryant T, Oliver EM, Martin J, Maskell J, Kemp T, et al. Incidence and risk factors for food hypersensitivity in UK infants: results from a birth cohort study. Clin Transl Allergy. 2016;6:1.
World Health Organization. Infant and young child feeding. 2018.
Ogbo FA, Agho K, Ogeleka P, Woolfenden S, Page A, Eastwood J, et al. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. PLoS One. 2017;12:e0171792.
Agostoni C, Bresson J-L, Fairweather-Tait S, Flynn A, Golly I, Korhonen H, et al. EFSA Panel On dietetic products, nutrition and allergies (NDA), scientific opinion on the appropriate age for introduction of complementary feeding of infants. EFSA J. 2009;7:1423.
Agostoni C, Decsi T, Fewtrell M, Goulet O, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, et al. Complementary feeding: a commentary by the ESPGHAN committee on nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;46:99–110.
Sansotta N, Piacentini GL, Mazzei F, Minniti F, Boner AL, Peroni DG. Timing of introduction of solid food and risk of allergic disease development: understanding the evidence. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2013;41:337–45.
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Shannon FT. Early solid feeding and recurrent childhood eczema: a 10-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 1990;86:541–6.
Zeiger RS. Food allergen avoidance in the prevention of food allergy in infants and children. Pediatrics. 2003;111:1662–71.
Høst A, Koletzko B, Dreborg S, Muraro A, Wahn U, Aggett P, et al. Dietary products used in infants for treatment and prevention of food allergy. Joint statement of the European Society for Paediatric Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) committee on hypoallergenic formulas and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and nutrition (ESPGHAN) committee on nutrition. Arch Dis Child. 1999;81:80–4.
McGowan EC, Bloomberg GR, Gergen PJ, Visness CM, Jaffee KF, Sandel M, et al. Influence of early-life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135:171–8.
Zutavern A, Brockow I, Schaaf B, Bolte G, von Berg A, Diez U, et al. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization: results from a prospective birth cohort study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:401–11.
Snijders BE, Thijs C, van Ree R, van den Brandt PA. Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: the KOALA birth cohort study. Pediatrics. 2008;122:115–22.
Nwaru BI, Erkkola M, Ahonen S, Kaila M, Haapala AM, Kronberg-Kippilä C, et al. Age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year and allergic sensitization at age 5 years. Pediatrics. 2010;125:50–9.
Snijders BEP, Thijs C, van Ree R, van den Brand PA. Age at first introduction of cow milk products and other food products in relation to infant atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatrics. 2008;122(1):115–22.
Prescott SL, Smith P, Tang M, Palmer DJ, Sinn J, Huntley SJ, et al. The importance of early complementary feeding in the development of oral tolerance: concerns and controversies. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008;19:375–80.
Conlon MA, Bird AR. The impact of diet and lifestyle on gut microbiota and human health. Nutrients. 2014;7:17–44.
Thorburn AN, Macia L, Mackay CR. Diet, metabolites, and "western-lifestyle" inflammatory diseases. Immunity. 2014;40:833–42.
Yatsunenko T, Rey FE, Manary MJ, Trehan I, Dominguez-Bello MG, Contreras M, et al. Human gut microbiome viewed across age and geography. Nature. 2012;486:222–7.
Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, Mesher D, Maleki SJ, Fisher HR, et al. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:984–91.
Roehr CC, Edenharter G, Reimann S, Ehlers I, Worm M, Zuberbier T, et al. Food allergy and non-allergic food hypersensitivity in children and adolescents. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004;34:1534–41.
Sandin A, Annus T, Björkstén B. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in Swedish and Estonian schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:399–403.