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  1. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most co...

    Authors: Rachel E Thomas, Leanne M Johnston, Roslyn N Boyd, Leanne Sakzewski and Megan J Kentish
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:35
  2. Allergic rhinitis and asthma (ARA) are chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways that often coexist in children. The only tool to assess the ARA control, the Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CA...

    Authors: Luís Miguel Borrego, João Almeida Fonseca, Ana Margarida Pereira, Vera Reimão Pinto, Daniela Linhares and Mário Morais-Almeida
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:34
  3. Delivery room management (DR) of the newly born infant should be performed according to international guidelines, but no recommendations are available for an infant’s position immediately after birth. The pres...

    Authors: Dimitrios Konstantelos, Heidrun Gurth, Renate Bergert, Sascha Ifflaender and Mario Rüdiger
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:33
  4. Physical activity affords a wide range of physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents, yet many children with physical disabilities are insufficiently active to achieve these benefits...

    Authors: Carol Maher, Angela Crettenden, Kerry Evans, Myra Thiessen, Monica Toohey and Jim Dollman
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:31
  5. Consideration of the quality of life in relation to individual health status is crucial for planning and maintaining a system of patient-centered care. Until recently, there have been no suitable instruments t...

    Authors: Luiz Antonio Pellegrino, Erika Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Claudia Saad Magalhães, Ariane Aparecida Viana and Unni G Narayanan
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:30
  6. Since last 100 years, immunization rate is one of the best public health outcome and service indicators. However, the immunization system is still imperfect; there are many countries that still have unvaccinat...

    Authors: Omer Qutaiba B Al-lela, Mohd Baidi Bahari, Muhannad RM Salih, Mustafa G Al-abbassi, Ramadan M Elkalmi and Shazia Q Jamshed
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:29
  7. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of health care–associated diarrhea in children and adults. Although serious complications of CDI have been reported to be increasing in adults, this...

    Authors: Kevin L Schwartz, Ilyse Darwish, Susan E Richardson, Michael R Mulvey and Nisha Thampi
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:28
  8. Dalteparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, has anticoagulant and anti-angiogenic activity. This study investigated whether dalteparin reduced coronary artery lesion (CAL) prevalence, and resistance to intrave...

    Authors: Yasuji Inamo, Katsuya Saito, Maki Hasegawa, Rika Hayashi, Takahiro Nakamura, Osamu Abe, Teruaki Ishikawa, Yayoi Yoshino, Koji Hashimoto and Tatsuo Fuchigami
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:27
  9. Outcomes of health and rehabilitation services for children and youth with disabilities increasingly include assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The purpose of this research was to 1) descri...

    Authors: Mary Law, Steven Hanna, Dana Anaby, Marilyn Kertoy, Gillian King and Liqin Xu
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:26
  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disorder associated with excessive fat accumulation, mainly in the intra-abdominal region. A simple technique to estimate abdominal fat in this region could be use...

    Authors: Paula Alves Monteiro, Barbara de Moura Mello Antunes, Loreana Sanches Silveira, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes and Ismael Forte Freitas Junior
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:25
  11. Type 1 diabetes demands a complicated disease self-management by child and parents. The overwhelming task of combining every day parenting tasks with demands of taking care of a child with diabetes can have a ...

    Authors: Emiel A Boogerd, Cees Noordam and Chris M Verhaak
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:24
  12. The need for early intervention tools adapted to the First Nation culture is well documented. However, standards derived from First Nation communities are absent from the literature. This study examines the ps...

    Authors: Carmen Dionne, Suzie McKinnon, Jane Squires and Jantina Clifford
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:23
  13. Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthro...

    Authors: Hallgeir Kismul, Catherine Schwinger, Meera Chhagan, Mala Mapatano and Jan Van den Broeck
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:22
  14. Newborns delivered by vacuum extraction quite often show clinical signs of a hemodynamic compromise, which is difficult to assess in terms of severity. The conventional means to measure the hemodynamic status ...

    Authors: Tanja Karen, Martin Wolf, Rahel Nef, Daniel Haensse, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Gabriele Schulz and Jean-Claude Fauchère
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:21
  15. Immunization rate is one of the best public health outcome and service indicators of the last 100 years. Parental decisions regarding immunization are very important to improve immunization rate. The aim of th...

    Authors: Omer Qutaiba B Al-lela, Mohd Baidi Bahari, Harith Khalid Al-Qazaz, Muhannad RM Salih, Shazia Q Jamshed and Ramadan M Elkalmi
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:20
  16. While most children display a normal development, some children experience developmental delays compared to age specific development milestones assessed during school entry examination. Data exist on prevalenc...

    Authors: Heribert L Stich, Alexander Krämer and Rafael T Mikolajczyk
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:18
  17. Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease. Imbalance of cytokines released from T helper cells and environmental factors, such as exposure to poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), play pivotal roles in th...

    Authors: Nasser M Al-Daghri, Sherif Abd-Alrahman, Hossam Draz, Khalid Alkharfy, Abdul Khader Mohammed, Mario S Clerici and Majed S Alokail
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:17
  18. In light of declining autopsy rates around the world, post-mortem MR imaging is a promising alternative to conventional autopsy in the investigation of infant death. A major drawback of this non-invasive autop...

    Authors: Christoph M Rüegger, Christine Bartsch, Rosa Maria Martinez, Steffen Ross, Stephan A Bolliger, Brigitte Koller, Leonhard Held, Elisabeth Bruder, Peter Karl Bode, Rosmarie Caduff, Bernhard Frey, Leonhard Schäffer and Hans Ulrich Bucher
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:15
  19. In term newborns meconium ileus is frequently associated with cystic fibrosis. Reports on meconium ileus in preterm infants being diagnosed with cystic fibrosis early after birth are very scarce. Associations ...

    Authors: Alexander Puzik, Deborah J Morris-Rosendahl, Klaus-Dieter Rückauer, Claudia Otto, Peter Gessler, Ulrich Saueressig and Roland Hentschel
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:13
  20. Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the u...

    Authors: Roberto A Accinelli, Oscar Llanos, Lidia M López, María I Pino, Yeny A Bravo, Verónica Salinas, María Lazo, Julio R Noda, Marita Sánchez-Sierra, Lacey Zárate, Joao da Silva, Fabiola Gianella, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal and David Gozal
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:12
  21. Elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood was a predictor of hypertension in adulthood and contributes to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease. It is necessary to identify abnormal BP in children and...

    Authors: Xuejin Jiang, Zhongqiang Cao, Lijun Shen, Jing Wu, Zhongliang Li, Jing Gao and Youjie Wang
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:10
  22. The editors of BMC Pediatrics would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2013).

    Authors: Peter O'Donovan
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:7
  23. Social inequality in child survival hampers the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4). Monitoring under-five mortality in different social strata may contribute to public health policies that str...

    Authors: Wilton Pérez, Leif Eriksson, Elmer Zelaya Blandón, Lars-Åke Persson, Carina Källestål and Rodolfo Peña
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:9
  24. Current strategy to identify iron deficiency anemia relies on markers involving high costs. Reports have suggested red cell distribution width (RDW) as a potential screening test for identifying iron deficienc...

    Authors: Sunil Sazawal, Usha Dhingra, Pratibha Dhingra, Arup Dutta, Hiba Shabir, Venugopal P Menon and Robert E Black
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:8
  25. Erythema infectiosum is the most common clinical manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection although it has also been associated with rheumatologic diseases and various types of systemic vasculitides. Acute hep...

    Authors: Maria Koliou, Evaggelia Karaoli, Elpidoforos S Soteriades, Sylvie Pavlides, Stavros Bashiardes and Christina Christodoulou
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:6
  26. Research on trends in child undernutrition in Kenya has been hindered by the challenges of changing criteria for classifying undernutrition, and an emphasis in the literature on international comparisons of co...

    Authors: Dennis J Matanda, Maurice B Mittelmark and Dorcus Mbithe D Kigaru
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:5
  27. Health care transition of adolescents with chronic conditions may be unsuccessful when patients have not acquired the necessary skills and developmental milestones. It is therefore critical for health care pro...

    Authors: Lorena F Zhang, Jane SW Ho and Sean E Kennedy
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:4
  28. There is a growing worldwide trend of obesity in children. Identifying the causes and modifiable factors associated with child obesity is important in order to design effective public health strategies.

    Authors: José-Juan Sánchez-Cruz, Ingrid de Ruiter and José J Jiménez-Moleón
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:3
  29. Identify children at-risk of having mental health problems is of value to prevent injury. But the limited agreement between informants might jeopardize prevention initiatives. The aims of the present study wer...

    Authors: Aymery Constant, Judith Dulioust, Ashley Wazana, Taraneh Shojaei, Isabelle Pitrou and Viviane Kovess-Masfety
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:2
  30. Accurate classification of children’s immunization status is essential for clinical care, administration and evaluation of immunization programs, and vaccine program research. Computerized immunization registr...

    Authors: Shannon E MacDonald, Donald P Schopflocher and Richard P Golonka
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:1
  31. Sleep problems are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Serum ferritin levels have been associated with the severity of symptoms and sleep disturbances among children wit...

    Authors: Maha K Abou-Khadra, Omnia R Amin, Olfat G Shaker and Thanaa M Rabah
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:217
  32. Multidisciplinary group therapies for obese children and adolescents are effective but difficult to implement. There is a crucial need to evaluate simpler management programs that target the obese child and hi...

    Authors: Albane BR Maggio, Catherine Saunders Gasser, Claudine Gal-Duding, Maurice Beghetti, Xavier E Martin, Nathalie J Farpour-Lambert and Catherine Chamay-Weber
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:216
  33. Effects of palm olein (POL) on calcium and fat metabolic balance and gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance have been clinically evaluated but its use in combination with palm kernel oil (PKO), and canola oil has not...

    Authors: Maria Efigênia de Queiroz Leite, John Lasekan, Geraldine Baggs, Tereza Ribeiro, Jose Menezes-Filho, Mariana Pontes, Janice Druzian, Danile Leal Barreto, Carolina Oliveira de Souza, Ângela Mattos and Hugo Costa-Ribeiro Jr
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:215
  34. The assessment of Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is usually based on the Beighton tests, which consist of a series of nine tests. Possible methodological shortcomings can arise, as the tests do not incl...

    Authors: Tina Junge, Eva Jespersen, Niels Wedderkopp and Birgit Juul-Kristensen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:214
  35. Preterm infants represent up to 10% of births worldwide and have an increased risk of adverse metabolic outcomes in later life. Early life exposures are key factors in determining later health but current life...

    Authors: Claire L Wood, Robert J Tinnion, S Murthy Korada, Timothy D Cheetham, Caroline L Relton, Richard J Cooke, Mark S Pearce, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Michael I Trenell and Nicholas D Embleton
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:213
  36. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment among children with type 1 diabetes is increasing in Sweden. However, studies evaluating glycaemic control in children using CSII show inconsistent res...

    Authors: Anna Lena Brorsson, Janeth Leksell, Gunnel Viklund and Anna Lindholm Olinder
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:212
  37. This study investigated whether long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) had negative effects on statural growth and serum calcium levels in children with epilepsy in Taiwan.

    Authors: Herng-Sheng Lee, Shih-Yu Wang, Donald M Salter, Chih-Chien Wang, Shyi-Jou Chen and Hueng-Chuen Fan
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:211
  38. Italian guidelines for the management of fever in children (IFG) have been published in 2009 and thereafter disseminated in all country. A survey was conducted before their publication and three years later to...

    Authors: Elena Chiappini, Sofia D’Elios, Rachele Mazzantini, Paolo Becherucci, Monica Pierattelli, Luisa Galli and Maurizio de Martino
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:210
  39. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as abuse, household dysfunction, and neglect, have been shown to increase adults’ risk of developing chronic conditions and risk factors for chronic conditions, inclu...

    Authors: Chelsea Pretty, Deborah D O’Leary, John Cairney and Terrance J Wade
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:208
  40. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of preterm birth. Very different models using clinical parameters at an early postnatal age to predict BPD have been developed with little extensive qu...

    Authors: Wes Onland, Thomas P Debray, Matthew M Laughon, Martijn Miedema, Filip Cools, Lisa M Askie, Jeanette M Asselin, Sandra A Calvert, Sherry E Courtney, Carlo Dani, David J Durand, Neil Marlow, Janet L Peacock, J Jane Pillow, Roger F Soll, Ulrich H Thome…
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:207
  41. Preschool language and neurodevelopmental problems often persist and impede learning. The aims of the current study are to assess the uptake of a new universal 30 month health visitor contact and to quantify t...

    Authors: Fiona Sim, John O’Dowd, Lucy Thompson, James Law, Susan Macmillan, Michelle Affleck, Christopher Gillberg and Philip Wilson
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:206
  42. The serum level of amylase (sAm) is commonly used as a biochemical marker for diagnosis and management of pancreatic disorders. However, the use of the urine level of amylase (uAm) is limited in practice, beca...

    Authors: Keita Terui, Tomoro Hishiki, Takeshi Saito, Tetsuya Mitsunaga, Mitsuyuki Nakata and Hideo Yoshida
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:205
  43. Severe acute malnutrition has two main clinical manifestations, i.e., oedematous and non-oedematous. However, factors associated with oedema are not well established.

    Authors: Tsinuel Girma, Pernille Kæstel, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, Anne-Louise Hother and Henrik Friis
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:204
  44. Early interventions (EI) are recognised for their potential risk-reduction capacity. Although developmental delay is common in children born very preterm reports continue to suggest poor uptake of EI services....

    Authors: Margo A Pritchard, Paul B Colditz, David Cartwright, Peter H Gray, David Tudehope and Elaine Beller
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2013 13:201

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