To investigate the correlation between N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D), high-mobility group box 1(HMGB1), endogenous activin A (ACTA), blood glucose level, electrolyte levels and developmental quotient (DQ) scores of Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
In this retrospective study, a total of 90 neonates diagnosed with HIE who were admitted to our hospital from January 2018 to June 2021 were retrospectively enrolled, and 40 healthy full-term neonates born in our hospital during the same period were randomly selected. Neonates with HIE and healthy conditions were set as the study group and control group, respectively. Neonates with HIE are divided into three subgroups, mild, moderate, and severe, based on the severity of HIE. The Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) was used to assess neural development of neonates at 9 to 12 months postnatal. Biomarkers of peripheral venous blood were measured and collected in all neonates, including NT-proBNP, (25-(OH) D), HMGB1, ACTA, electrolyte levels and blood glucose levels. General demographic information and Apgar score were compared between the two groups. The differences between the two groups of biomarkers were compared and the correlation between these biomarkers and DQ scores was evaluated.
There was no significant difference in gestational age, maternal age, gender, way of birth, birth weight, gestational age and whether the mother was a primipara between the two groups (P>0.05). The 10 min Apgar score of the study group (5.87±0.36) was lower than that of the control group (9.37±0.32) with significant difference (P<0.05). The levels of NT-proBNP, HMGB1, and ACTA in the study group were higher than that in the control group (243.87±21.29 pmol/L vs. 116.98±22.19 pmol/L; 8.92±1.87 μg/L vs. 3.28±1.08 μg/L; 23.78±0.89 ng/ml vs. 2.98±0.38 ng/ml), while the levels of 25-(OH) D and electrolyte levels were lower than that in the control group (24.28±1.87 vs. 31.29±1.93; K+: 4.49±0.23 mmol/L vs. 4.73±0.21 mmol/L; Na+: 118.76±13.02 mmol/L vs. 134.28±12.29 mmol/L; Ca2+: 1.77±0.23 mmol/L vs. 2.35±0.26 mmol/L; Mg2+: 0.61±0.17 mmol/L vs. 0.91±0.17 mmol/L), with statistically significant differences (P<0.001). The levels of NT-probNP, HMGB1, ACTA and the incidence of hypoglycemia were the highest in the severe group, which were significantly higher than those in the moderate group and mild group (P<0.05). The levels of NT-probNP, HMGB1, ACTA and the incidence of hypoglycemia were the lowest in the mild group. The 25-(OH) D level, the incidence of hyperglycemia and electrolyte levels were the lowest in the severe group, which were significantly lower than those in the moderate and mild groups (all P<0.05). Meanwhile, the 25-(OH) D level, the incidence of hyperglycemia and electrolyte levels in the moderate group were lower than those in the mild group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05).
The incidence of hyperglycemia in severe group (16 cases) was the lowest, significantly lower than that in moderate group (17 cases) and mild group (22 cases), and the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.05).
The DQ scores of HIE neonates were negatively correlated with NT-proBNP, HMGB1, and ACTA (r=-0.671, -0.421, -0.518, all P< 0.001). The DQ scores was positively correlated with levels of 25-(OH) D and blood glucose level (r =0.621, 0.802, all P< 0.001). The DQ scores was also positively correlated with levels of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium (0.367, 0.782, 0.218, 0.678, all P<0.001).
The NT-proBNP, HMGB1, ACTA, 25-(OH) D, blood glucose levels and electrolyte levels are correlated with the severity of HIE, and developmental quotient scores in neonates with HIE. These biomarkers are suggestive for assessing the prognosis of neonate with HIE.