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  1. HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children are a rapidly growing population that may be at an increased risk of illness compared to HIV-unexposed children (HIVn). The aim of this study was to investigate the morbi...

    Authors: Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Alastair JW Millar, Nelleke van der Graaf, Guido van Bogerijen and Heather J Zar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:69

    Content type: Research article

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  2. There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a seco...

    Authors: Michael Absoud, Carole Cummins, Wui K Chong, Christian De Goede, Katharine Foster, Roxanna Gunny, Cheryl Hemingway, Philip Jardine, Rachel Kneen, Marcus Likeman, Ming J Lim, Mike Pike, Naomi Sibtain, William P Whitehouse and Evangeline Wassmer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:68

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Children living with HIV continue to be in urgent need of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). Strategies to scale up and improve pediatric HIV care in resource-poor regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa...

    Authors: Laurence Ahoua, Gunar Guenther, Christine Rouzioux, Loretxu Pinoges, Paul Anguzu, Anne-Marie Taburet, Suna Balkan, David M Olson, Charles Olaro and Mar Pujades-Rodríguez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:67

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of chil...

    Authors: Margaret CS Boguszewski, Veronica Mericq, Ignacio Bergada, Durval Damiani, Alicia Belgorosky, Peter Gunczler, Teresa Ortiz, Mauricio Llano, Horacio M Domené, Raúl Calzada-León, Armando Blanco, Margarita Barrientos, Patricio Procel, Roberto Lanes and Orlando Jaramillo

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:66

    Content type: Debate

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  5. Coping with a chronic illness (CI) challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may preven...

    Authors: Linde Scholten, Agnes M Willemen, Martha A Grootenhuis, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Carlo Schuengel and Bob F Last

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:65

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of...

    Authors: Atinuke M Agunloye, Adejumoke I Ayede and Samuel I Omokhodion

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:64

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI). Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a diff...

    Authors: Inge Huybrechts, John H Himes, Charlene Ottevaere, Tineke De Vriendt, Willem De Keyzer, Bianca Cox, Inge Van Trimpont, Dirk De Bacquer and Stefaan De Henauw

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:63

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke...

    Authors: Anna M Lavezzi, Lucijan Mohorovic, Graziella Alfonsi, Melissa F Corna and Luigi Matturri

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:62

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+) declines to levels b...

    Authors: Urban Fläring, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, Björn Frenckner, Jan F Svensson, Ingimar Ingolfsson, Lena Wallensteen, Shayarina Stigzelius, Jan Kowalski and Rafael T Krmar

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:61

    Content type: Study protocol

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  10. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibioti...

    Authors: Sotiria G Panagakou, Νikos Spyridis, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Kalliopi M Theodoridou, Georgia P Goutziana, Maria N Theodoridou, George A Syrogiannopoulos and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:60

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Luisa A Ribeiro, Henrik D Zachrisson, Synnve Schjolberg, Heidi Aase, Nina Rohrer-Baumgartner and Per Magnus

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:59

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene befo...

    Authors: Gehan Roberts, Jon Quach, Lisa Gold, Peter Anderson, Field Rickards, Fiona Mensah, John Ainley, Susan Gathercole and Melissa Wake

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:57

    Content type: Study protocol

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  13. In Egypt, Wilson disease seems to be under diagnosed and clinical data on large cohorts are limited. The aim of this study is to highlight the clinical, laboratory and genetic characteristics of this disease i...

    Authors: Tawhida Y Abdel Ghaffar, Solaf M Elsayed, Suzan Elnaghy, Ahmed Shadeed, Ezzat S Elsobky and Hartmut Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:56

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord be...

    Authors: Gitte R Husted, Birger Thorsteinsson, Bente Appel Esbensen, Eva Hommel and Vibeke Zoffmann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:55

    Content type: Study protocol

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  15. Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART) vs. spontaneous conception (SC) have reported conflicting results in terms of mortali...

    Authors: Vibhuti Shah, Haydi AlWassia, Karan Shah, Woojin Yoon and Prakeshkumar Shah

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:54

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neu...

    Authors: Colin Morgan, Shakeel Herwitker, Isam Badhawi, Anna Hart, Maw Tan, Kelly Mayes, Paul Newland and Mark A Turner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:53

    Content type: Study protocol

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  17. Cases of cytomegalovirus colitis are exceptionally reported in immuno-competent infant. The pathogenesis is uncertain but breast-feeding is considered as a main source of postnatal infection.

    Authors: Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Valentina Fiorini, Cristina Rivi, Federica Vagnarelli, Nicola Guaraldi, Paola Pietrosemoli, Tiziana Lazzarotto and Fabrizio Ferrari

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:52

    Content type: Case report

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  18. Ethanol is the most widely used drug in the world and a human teratogen whose consumption among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. There are no Italian or Spanish statistics on ethanol con...

    Authors: F Vagnarelli, I Palmi, O García-Algar, M Falcon, L Memo, L Tarani, R Spoletini, R Pacifici, C Mortali, A Pierantozzi and S Pichini

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:51

    Content type: Research article

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  19. There are limited long-term randomized controlled trials of growth hormone (GH) supplementation to adult height and few published reports of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following treatment. The ...

    Authors: Shayne P Taback and Guy Van Vliet

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:49

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In premature born infants red blood cell (RBC) transfusions have been associated with both beneficial and detrimental sequels. Upon RBC transfusion, improvement in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation have been...

    Authors: Jeannette S von Lindern, Chantal M Khodabux, Karien EA Hack, Ingrid C van Haastert, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Paul HT van Zwieten, Anneke Brand and Frans J Walther

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:48

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Weight loss and increased physical fitness are established approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the reduction in BMI z-score associated with improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors ...

    Authors: Magnhild L Pollestad Kolsgaard, Geir Joner, Cathrine Brunborg, Sigmund A Anderssen, Serena Tonstad and Lene Frost Andersen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:47

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:77

  22. Children with chronic illnesses are known to have increased risks for emotional and behavioral problems. In the present study, children and adolescent suffering from celiac disease (CD) were compared with heal...

    Authors: Luigi Mazzone, Laura Reale, Massimo Spina, Manuela Guarnera, Elena Lionetti, Serena Martorana and Domenico Mazzone

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:46

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Generic and condition-specific (CS) oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general oral conditions and specific oral diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Da...

    Authors: Hawa S Mbawalla, Matilda Mtaya, Joyce R Masalu, Pongsri Brudvik and Anne N Astrom

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:45

    Content type: Research article

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  24. H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined ...

    Authors: Khitam Muhsen, Asher Ornoy, Ashraf Akawi, Gershon Alpert and Dani Cohen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:43

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In young people with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy weakness of the hip extensor muscles are associated with limitations in activity. It is important that clinicians can reliably measure hip extensor muscle s...

    Authors: Kate M Dyball, Nicholas F Taylor and Karen J Dodd

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:42

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Fever is one of the most common presenting complaints in paediatrics and general practice. In the majority of cases nothing harmful is diagnosed. However, the subjective meaning of fever often varies between d...

    Authors: Thorsten Langer, Miriam Pfeifer, Aynur Soenmez, Bilge Tarhan, Elke Jeschke and Thomas Ostermann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:41

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The safety and effectiveness of psychotropic drug use in the paediatric population is widely debated, in particular because of the lack of data concerning long term effects.

    Authors: Antonio Clavenna, Margherita Andretta, Paola Pilati, Maurizio Dusi, Michele Gangemi, Maria Beatrice Gattoni, Giuseppe Lombardo, Leonardo Zoccante, Luigi Mezzalira and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:40

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal dise...

    Authors: Luregn J Schlapbach, Stefanie Frey, Susanna Bigler, Chiem Manh-Nhi, Christoph Aebi, Mathias Nelle and Jean-Marc Nuoffer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:38

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The vulnerability of newborn babies' skin creates the potential for a number of skin problems. Despite this, there remains a dearth of good quality evidence to inform practice. Published studies comparing wate...

    Authors: Tina Lavender, Carol Bedwell, Ediri O'Brien, Michael J Cork, Mark Turner and Anna Hart

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:35

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the c...

    Authors: Iris Niederer, Susi Kriemler, Janine Gut, Tim Hartmann, Christian Schindler, Jérôme Barral and Jardena J Puder

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:34

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Breastfeeding (BF) is protective against overweight and is associated with dietary behaviour. The aims of our study were to assess the relationship between exclusive BF duration and BMI, waist circumference (W...

    Authors: Marlou LA De Kroon, Carry M Renders, Michelle PJ Buskermolen, Jacobus P Van Wouwe, Stef van Buuren and Remy A Hirasing

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:33

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Celiac disease often goes undiagnosed. Mass screening might be an option to reduce the public health burden of untreated celiac disease. However, mass screening is still controversial since it is uncertain whe...

    Authors: Anna Rosén, Anneli Ivarsson, Katrina Nordyke, Eva Karlsson, Annelie Carlsson, Lars Danielsson, Lotta Högberg and Maria Emmelin

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:32

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the inc...

    Authors: Verena Wiegering, Judith Schick, Meinrad Beer, Benedikt Weissbrich, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Hermann J Girschick, Johannes Liese, Paul G Schlegel and Matthias Eyrich

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:31

    Content type: Case report

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  34. Infections by a variety of pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during perinatal period. The susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections has been attributed to immaturity of inna...

    Authors: Athanasios Filias, Georgios L Theodorou, Sofia Mouzopoulou, Anastasia A Varvarigou, Stephanos Mantagos and Marina Karakantza

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:29

    Content type: Research article

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  35. In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) parents have full responsibility for the diabetes-management of their child (e.g. blood glucose monitoring, and administering insulin). Behavioral tasks i...

    Authors: Anke M Nieuwesteeg, Frans Pouwer, Hedwig JA van Bakel, Wilco HM Emons, Henk-Jan Aanstoot, Roelof Odink and Esther E Hartman

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:28

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of...

    Authors: Joerg J Meerpohl, Robert F Wolff, Gerd Antes and Erik von Elm

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:27

    Content type: Research article

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  37. How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages.

    Authors: Nathalie Auger, Mark Daniel, Bärbel Knäuper, Marie-France Raynault and Barry Pless

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:26

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Physicians, nurses and hospital pharmacists were surveyed to assess attitudes of hospital-based pediatric caregivers regarding the dosing of medicine to children. Our objectives were to gauge how current resou...

    Authors: Jeffrey S Barrett, Mahesh Narayan, Dimple Patel, Athena F Zuppa and Peter C Adamson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:25

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies...

    Authors: Diane J Lamb, Christel M Middeldorp, Catharina EM van Beijsterveldt, Jacqueline M Vink, Monique C Haak and Dorret I Boomsma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:24

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general an...

    Authors: Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Shane A Norris, John M Pettifor, Stephen M Tollman, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Xavier F Gómez-Olivé, David B Dunger and Kathleen Kahn

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:23

    Content type: Research article

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  41. It is difficult to predict the reproductive capacity of children given hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) before pubertal age because the plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and l...

    Authors: Sylvie Laporte, Ana-Claudia Couto-Silva, Séverine Trabado, Pierre Lemaire, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Hélène Espérou, Jean Michon, André Baruchel, Alain Fischer, Christine Trivin and Raja Brauner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:20

    Content type: Research article

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