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  1. Today, approximately one in five United States adolescents age 12 to 19 years is obese and just over a third are either overweight or obese. This study examines how parents and peers influence diet and physica...

    Authors: Kristen M. J. Azar, Meghan Halley, Nan Lv, Sharon Wulfovich, Katie Gillespie, Lily Liang and Lisa Goldman Rosas

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:137

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is among the most severe chronic lung diseases and predominantly affects premature infants. There is a general understanding of BPD’s significant impact on the short-term outco...

    Authors: Sasha van Katwyk, Sajit Augustine, Bernard Thébaud and Kednapa Thavorn

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:136

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Despite different preventive strategies that have been implemented in different health institutions in the country, neonatal mortality and morbidity are still significantly increasing in Ethiopia. Perinatal as...

    Authors: Fikadu Waltengus Sendeku, Getnet Gedefaw Azeze and Selamawit Lake Fenta

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:135

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Evidence of the influence of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) behaviors on childhood nutritional status is inconsistent. Few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study aimed to examine ass...

    Authors: Som Kumar Shrestha, Don Vicendese and Bircan Erbas

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:134

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Anomalous aortic origin of the left coronary artery (AAOLCA) from the right aortic sinus is a rare congenital anomaly associated with significantly increased risk of myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias and sudden...

    Authors: Anja Hanser, Andreas Hornung, Ludger Sieverding, Jürgen Schäfer and Michael Hofbeck

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:132

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Screening for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) can help identifying individuals at the risks of chronic and metabolic diseases, but blood collection is invasive and cannot be widely used for inve...

    Authors: Yu-Lan Ou, Yue-Rong Lai, Chao-Nan Jiang, Jing Zhang and Zan Ding

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:131

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Hyperbilirubinemia is a common neonatal problem. Studies conducted on the effectiveness of zinc salts on serum indirect bilirubin levels in newborns have yielded different results, all calling for further rese...

    Authors: Gholamreza Faal, Hoda Khatib Masjedi, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh and Zahra Kiani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:130

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Birth asphyxia accounts for one-quarter newborn deaths. Providing quality care service of neonatal resuscitation reduces neonatal mortality. However, challenges to providing quality neonatal resuscitation are ...

    Authors: Haftom Gebrehiwot Weldearegay, Mulugeta Woldu Abrha, Esayas Haregot Hilawe, Brhane Ayele Gebrekidan and Araya Abrha Medhanyie

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:129

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Auto-immune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type I is a rare genetic disease, usually revealed by chronic superficial candidiasis and autoimmune endocrine dysfunction in childhood.

    Authors: Basilice Mireille Minka, Aurélie Sibetcheu T, Suzanne Ngo Um Sap and Maryse Césarine Bissa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:128

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) identifies patients with acute onset of obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders. The objective of this...

    Authors: Lorenzo Loffredo, Alberto Spalice, Francesca Salvatori, Giovanna De Castro, Cristiana Alessia Guido, Anna Maria Zicari, Paolo Ciacci, Simona Battaglia, Giulia Brindisi, Evaristo Ettorre, Cristina Nocella, Guglielmo Salvatori, Marzia Duse, Francesco Violi and Roberto Carnevale

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:127

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Tocilizumab (TCZ), a kind of biological agent against both membrane and soluble IL-6 receptor, i...

    Authors: Meng Xu, Congcong Liu, Lishuang Guo and Sirui Yang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:126

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL) intervention programme was developed to prevent overweight and disordered eating in Malaysian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate the...

    Authors: Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak, Yit Siew Chin, Mohd. Nasir Mohd. Taib, Yoke Mun Chan and Zalilah Mohd. Shariff

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:122

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as the obese pediatric population has increased. NAFLD causes progressive liver injury and the only effective treatment is lifestyle mod...

    Authors: Mi Jin Kim and Kyung Jae Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:121

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Joubert syndrome is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Clinical hallmarks include hypotonia, ataxia, facial dysmorphism, abnormal eye movement, irregul...

    Authors: Marcello Niceta, Maria Lisa Dentici, Andrea Ciolfi, Romana Marini, Sabina Barresi, Francesca Romana Lepri, Antonio Novelli, Enrico Bertini, Marco Cappa, Maria Cristina Digilio, Bruno Dallapiccola and Marco Tartaglia

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:120

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Questionnaires to detect emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH) should be short which potentially affects validity and reliability. Simulation studies have shown that Comp...

    Authors: Meinou H. C. Theunissen, Marianne S. de Wolff, Jacqueline A. Deurloo, Anton G. C. Vogels and Sijmen A. Reijneveld

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:119

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Childhood is an important period for developing maturity in thinking. Accumulating evidence shows the association between physical activity and cognitive function. Although both the intelligence quotient and e...

    Authors: Nitita Piya-amornphan, Anoma Santiworakul, Salila Cetthakrikul and Phatcharawadee Srirug

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:118

    Content type: Research article

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  17. It is not yet known how antibiotics may affect Serious Bacterial Infections (SBI). Our aim is to describe the presentation, management, and serious bacterial infections (SBI) of febrile children on or off anti...

    Authors: R. D. Sawaya, T. El Zahran, S. Mrad, C. Abdul Massih, S. Shaya, M. Makki, H. Tamim and M. Majdalani

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:117

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical presentation, epilepsy, EEG, extent and site of the underlying cerebral lesion with special reference towards aetiologic background factors in a population-ba...

    Authors: Elsa Tillberg, Bengt Isberg and Jonas K. E. Persson

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:116

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Respiratory infections are one of three leading causes of childhood mortality, and worldwide increase and recent plateau in childhood asthma has been reported. However, data on trends of respiratory diseases o...

    Authors: Peng Shi, Xiaobo Zhang, Lijuan Liu, Liangfeng Tang, Jing Li, Libo Wang, Albert M. Li, Yang Cao, Hong Xu and Guoying Huang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:115

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Malnutrition is a major public health problem with short and long-term adverse effects on children particularly in middle and low-income countries. Three out of every ten under-five children are said to be stu...

    Authors: Adanna Anthonia Umeokonkwo, Maryann Ugochi Ibekwe, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Clifford Onuorah Okike, Obumneme Benaiah Ezeanosike and Bede Chidozie Ibe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:114

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Child maltreatment affects a significant number of children globally. Strategies have been developed to identify children suspected of having been exposed to maltreatment with the aim of reducing further maltr...

    Authors: Jill R. McTavish, Andrea Gonzalez, Nancy Santesso, Jennifer C. D. MacGregor, Chris McKee and Harriet L. MacMillan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:113

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Self-regulation (SR), or the capacity to control one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in order to achieve a desired goal, shapes health outcomes through many pathways, including supporting adherence to medi...

    Authors: Alison L. Miller, Sharon L. Lo, Dana Albright, Joyce M. Lee, Christine M. Hunter, Katherine W. Bauer, Rosalind King, Katy M. Clark, Kiren Chaudhry, Niko Kaciroti, Benjamin Katz and Emily M. Fredericks

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:112

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. To carry out a complete clinical, pathological, genetic and microbiological characterization of pediatric patients with molecular confirmed cystic fibrosis (CF) attending the Carlos Andrade Marín Hospital (HCA...

    Authors: Yazmina Lascano-Vaca, Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Lenin Gomez-Barreno, Katherine Simbaña-Rivera, Eduardo Vasconez, Alexander Lister, María Emilia Arteaga-Espinosa and Geovanny F. Perez

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:111

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Ménétrier’s disease (MD) is a protein-losing gastropathy characterized by gastric hypertrophy, foveolar hyperplasia and hypoalbuminemia. MD is uncommon in childhood with nonspecific clinical symptoms, and the ...

    Authors: Jiewei Zhang, Yizhong Wang, Haifeng Liu, Yongmei Xiao and Ting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:110

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Heated Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy (HHFNC) is increasingly used on the paediatric wards and High Dependency Units (HDU) for different types of pathologies and different age groups. We aim...

    Authors: Osama Hosheh, Christopher T. Edwards and Padmanabhan Ramnarayan

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:109

    Content type: Research article

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  26. 50% of Malagasy children have moderate to severe stunting. In 2016, a new 10 year National Nutrition Action Plan (PNAN III) was initiated to help address stunting and developmental delay. We report factors ass...

    Authors: Ann C. Miller, Andres Garchitorena, Faramalala Rabemananjara, Laura Cordier, Marius Randriamanambintsoa, Victor Rabeza, Hery-Tiana Rahaniraka Razanadrakoto, Ranaivozafindary Rakoto Ramakasoa, Olivier RamahefarisonTiana, Baolova Nathaline Ratsimbazafy, Mohammed Ali Ouenzar, Matthew H. Bonds and Lisy Ratsifandrihamanana

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:108

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Syncope is a common and often benign disorder presenting at the pediatric emergency department. Long-QT syndrome may be presented with syncope, ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death and is vital to exclude a...

    Authors: Björn Reynisson, Gustaf Tanghöj and Estelle Naumburg

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:107

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Meconium peritonitis is defined as aseptic chemical inflammation caused by intrauterine bowel perforation. The underlying causes of bowel perforation include intestinal atresia, midgut volvulus, intussusceptio...

    Authors: Kyung Hee Park, Mi Hye Bae, Na Rae Lee, Young Mi Han, Shin-Yun Byun and Hae-Young Kim

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:106

    Content type: Case report

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  29. The prevalence of obesity among infants less than 2 years of age has increased by more than 60% over the last three decades. Obese infants and toddlers are at an increased risk for staying overweight into adol...

    Authors: Brittany Watchmaker, Bridget Boyd and Lara R. Dugas

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:104

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Robin sequence (RS) is characterized by mandibular micro- and retrognathia, glossoptosis, upper airway obstruction and optionally a cleft palate. With an incidence of 1:8000, it belongs to the so-called rare d...

    Authors: Silvia Müller-Hagedorn, Jörg Arand, Thilo Scholz, Christian F. Poets and Cornelia Wiechers

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:103

    Content type: Technical advance

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  31. Stunting, which describes a small height for one’s age, is an indicator of chronic malnutrition. It develops mainly as a result of prolonged food deprivation or a chronic disease or illness. Unintended pregnan...

    Authors: Mohammed Feyisso Shaka, Yetayal Birhanu Woldie, Hirbaye Mokona Lola, Kalkidan Yohannes Olkamo and Adane Tesfaye Anbasse

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:101

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare potentially fatal illness characterized by impaired natural killer and cytotoxic T cell function. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immune d...

    Authors: Ang Wei, Honghao Ma, Liping Zhang, Zhigang Li, Qing Zhang, Dong Wang, Li Zhang, Hongyun Lian, Rui Zhang and Tianyou Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:100

    Content type: Case report

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  33. Abacavir (ABC) and Zidovudine (AZT) based regimens are the preferred first line nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTIs) backbones being widely utilized for managing HIV infection in children. However, there i...

    Authors: Teshale Ayele Mega, Firehiwot Belayneh Usamo and Getandale Zeleke Negera

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:99

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Previous studies have reported that long-term use of valproic acid can cause changes in bone metabolism in children. We conducted this meta-analysis to determine the effects of valproic acid on bone metabolism...

    Authors: Li Min, Wang Chunyan and Rong Biaoxue

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:97

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity in adolescents is weight-loss surgery coupled with lifestyle behavior change. In preparation for weight-loss surgery, adolescents are required to make ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Prout Parks, Darra D. Finnerty, Jennifer Panganiban, Rosemary Frasso, Chanelle Bishop-Gilyard, Colleen M. Tewksbury, Noel N. Williams, Kristoffel R. Dumon, Gaby Cordero, Douglas L. Hill and David B. Sarwer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:96

    Content type: Research article

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  36. To describe the incidence and management of gastrointestinal tract Buckyball magnets ingestions in a multicenter Chinese pediatric patient population, and discuss the preventive measures.

    Authors: Kai Wang, Dan Zhang, Xianling Li, Zengmeng Wang, Guangjun Hou, Xinjian Jia, Huizhong Niu, Shiqin Qi, Qingqiang Deng, Bin Jiang, Hongqiang Bian, Heying Yang and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:95

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Non-invasive monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rcSO2) during transition is of growing interest. Different near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques have been developed to measure rcSO2. We compa...

    Authors: Tanja van Essen, Tom G. Goos, Liza van Ballegooijen, Gerhard Pichler, Berndt Urlesberger, Irwin K. M. Reiss and Rogier C. J. de Jonge

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:94

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Acute respiratory infection is manifested by cough accompanied by short rapid breathing which may be associated with death especially when there are other co-morbidities. From an estimated 5.4 million children...

    Authors: Henok Dagne, Zewudu Andualem, Baye Dagnew and Asefa Adimasu Taddese

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Following the publication of article by Cauble et al. [1], typographical errors were discovered. The Lingwood et al. and Deierlein et al. equations were listed incorrectly. To avoid confusion to the readers, t...

    Authors: Jennifer S. Cauble, Mira Dewi and Holly R. Hull

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:92

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:88

  40. Diarrhea, particularly of enteric bacterial pathogen, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Despite the high prevalence of diarrheal disease among under-five children, antibiotic resist...

    Authors: Wagi Tosisa, Adane Mihret, Asnake Ararsa, Tadesse Eguale and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:91

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-threatening, autosomal-recessive disorder among Caucasians. To date, approximately 2000 mutations in the CFTR gene have been reported. Some of these mutations are ...

    Authors: Joanna Jaworska, Aleksandra Marach-Mocarska and Dorota Sands

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:90

    Content type: Case report

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  42. The extent and implications of muscle building protein supplement use among adolescents is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of protein powder, creatine, and anabolic steroid use ...

    Authors: Zali Yager and Siân McLean

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:89

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Prematurity is the leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age globally and is also frequently associated with postnatal growth failure (PGF). Although most preterm births occur in low resource...

    Authors: Clare Nakubulwa, Victor Musiime, Flavia B. Namiiro, James K Tumwine, Christine Hongella, James Nyonyintono, Anna B. Hedstrom and Robert Opoka

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

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