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  1. Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates were low with < 30% of adolescent girls fully vaccinated. Research on barriers to vaccination has focused separately on...

    Authors: Cayce C Hughes, Amanda L Jones, Kristen A Feemster and Alexander G Fiks
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:74
  2. Early-onset depressive disorders can have severe consequences both from developmental and functional aspects. The etiology of depressive disorders is complex and multi-factorial, with an intricate interaction ...

    Authors: Cássia R Benko, Antonio C Farias, Lucilene G Farias, Erico F Pereira, Fernando M Louzada and Mara L Cordeiro
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:73
  3. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of molecularly defined congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) due to mutations in the GM-CSF receptor are not well known.

    Authors: Matthias Griese, Jan Ripper, Anke Sibbersen, Pia Lohse, Peter Lohse, Frank Brasch, Andrea Schams, Asli Pamir, Bianca Schaub, Oliver J Muensterer, Carola Schön, Judith Glöckner-Pagel, Thomas Nicolai, Karl Reiter and Andreas Hector
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:72
  4. Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is...

    Authors: Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Kamilla L Venner, Hilary K Mead and Angela D Bryan
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:71
  5. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practit...

    Authors: Igor Karp, Gilles Paradis, Marie Lambert, Erika Dugas and Jennifer O'Loughlin
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:70
  6. HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children are a rapidly growing population that may be at an increased risk of illness compared to HIV-unexposed children (HIVn). The aim of this study was to investigate the morbi...

    Authors: Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Alastair JW Millar, Nelleke van der Graaf, Guido van Bogerijen and Heather J Zar
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:69
  7. There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a seco...

    Authors: Michael Absoud, Carole Cummins, Wui K Chong, Christian De Goede, Katharine Foster, Roxanna Gunny, Cheryl Hemingway, Philip Jardine, Rachel Kneen, Marcus Likeman, Ming J Lim, Mike Pike, Naomi Sibtain, William P Whitehouse and Evangeline Wassmer
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:68
  8. Children living with HIV continue to be in urgent need of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). Strategies to scale up and improve pediatric HIV care in resource-poor regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa...

    Authors: Laurence Ahoua, Gunar Guenther, Christine Rouzioux, Loretxu Pinoges, Paul Anguzu, Anne-Marie Taburet, Suna Balkan, David M Olson, Charles Olaro and Mar Pujades-Rodríguez
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:67
  9. Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of chil...

    Authors: Margaret CS Boguszewski, Veronica Mericq, Ignacio Bergada, Durval Damiani, Alicia Belgorosky, Peter Gunczler, Teresa Ortiz, Mauricio Llano, Horacio M Domené, Raúl Calzada-León, Armando Blanco, Margarita Barrientos, Patricio Procel, Roberto Lanes and Orlando Jaramillo
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:66
  10. Coping with a chronic illness (CI) challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may preven...

    Authors: Linde Scholten, Agnes M Willemen, Martha A Grootenhuis, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Carlo Schuengel and Bob F Last
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:65
  11. Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of...

    Authors: Atinuke M Agunloye, Adejumoke I Ayede and Samuel I Omokhodion
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:64
  12. Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI). Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a diff...

    Authors: Inge Huybrechts, John H Himes, Charlene Ottevaere, Tineke De Vriendt, Willem De Keyzer, Bianca Cox, Inge Van Trimpont, Dirk De Bacquer and Stefaan De Henauw
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:63
  13. Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke...

    Authors: Anna M Lavezzi, Lucijan Mohorovic, Graziella Alfonsi, Melissa F Corna and Luigi Matturri
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:62
  14. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+) declines to levels b...

    Authors: Urban Fläring, Per-Arne Lönnqvist, Björn Frenckner, Jan F Svensson, Ingimar Ingolfsson, Lena Wallensteen, Shayarina Stigzelius, Jan Kowalski and Rafael T Krmar
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:61
  15. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibioti...

    Authors: Sotiria G Panagakou, Νikos Spyridis, Vassiliki Papaevangelou, Kalliopi M Theodoridou, Georgia P Goutziana, Maria N Theodoridou, George A Syrogiannopoulos and Christos S Hadjichristodoulou
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:60
  16. Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation...

    Authors: Luisa A Ribeiro, Henrik D Zachrisson, Synnve Schjolberg, Heidi Aase, Nina Rohrer-Baumgartner and Per Magnus
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:59
  17. Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene befo...

    Authors: Gehan Roberts, Jon Quach, Lisa Gold, Peter Anderson, Field Rickards, Fiona Mensah, John Ainley, Susan Gathercole and Melissa Wake
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:57
  18. In Egypt, Wilson disease seems to be under diagnosed and clinical data on large cohorts are limited. The aim of this study is to highlight the clinical, laboratory and genetic characteristics of this disease i...

    Authors: Tawhida Y Abdel Ghaffar, Solaf M Elsayed, Suzan Elnaghy, Ahmed Shadeed, Ezzat S Elsobky and Hartmut Schmidt
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:56
  19. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord be...

    Authors: Gitte R Husted, Birger Thorsteinsson, Bente Appel Esbensen, Eva Hommel and Vibeke Zoffmann
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:55
  20. Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART) vs. spontaneous conception (SC) have reported conflicting results in terms of mortali...

    Authors: Vibhuti Shah, Haydi AlWassia, Karan Shah, Woojin Yoon and Prakeshkumar Shah
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:54
  21. Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neu...

    Authors: Colin Morgan, Shakeel Herwitker, Isam Badhawi, Anna Hart, Maw Tan, Kelly Mayes, Paul Newland and Mark A Turner
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:53
  22. Cases of cytomegalovirus colitis are exceptionally reported in immuno-competent infant. The pathogenesis is uncertain but breast-feeding is considered as a main source of postnatal infection.

    Authors: Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Valentina Fiorini, Cristina Rivi, Federica Vagnarelli, Nicola Guaraldi, Paola Pietrosemoli, Tiziana Lazzarotto and Fabrizio Ferrari
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:52
  23. Ethanol is the most widely used drug in the world and a human teratogen whose consumption among women of childbearing age has been steadily increasing. There are no Italian or Spanish statistics on ethanol con...

    Authors: F Vagnarelli, I Palmi, O García-Algar, M Falcon, L Memo, L Tarani, R Spoletini, R Pacifici, C Mortali, A Pierantozzi and S Pichini
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:51
  24. There are limited long-term randomized controlled trials of growth hormone (GH) supplementation to adult height and few published reports of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following treatment. The ...

    Authors: Shayne P Taback and Guy Van Vliet
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:49
  25. In premature born infants red blood cell (RBC) transfusions have been associated with both beneficial and detrimental sequels. Upon RBC transfusion, improvement in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation have been...

    Authors: Jeannette S von Lindern, Chantal M Khodabux, Karien EA Hack, Ingrid C van Haastert, Corine Koopman-Esseboom, Paul HT van Zwieten, Anneke Brand and Frans J Walther
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:48
  26. Weight loss and increased physical fitness are established approaches to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. We studied the reduction in BMI z-score associated with improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors ...

    Authors: Magnhild L Pollestad Kolsgaard, Geir Joner, Cathrine Brunborg, Sigmund A Anderssen, Serena Tonstad and Lene Frost Andersen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:47

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pediatrics 2012 12:77

  27. Children with chronic illnesses are known to have increased risks for emotional and behavioral problems. In the present study, children and adolescent suffering from celiac disease (CD) were compared with heal...

    Authors: Luigi Mazzone, Laura Reale, Massimo Spina, Manuela Guarnera, Elena Lionetti, Serena Martorana and Domenico Mazzone
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:46
  28. Generic and condition-specific (CS) oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general oral conditions and specific oral diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Da...

    Authors: Hawa S Mbawalla, Matilda Mtaya, Joyce R Masalu, Pongsri Brudvik and Anne N Astrom
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:45
  29. H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined ...

    Authors: Khitam Muhsen, Asher Ornoy, Ashraf Akawi, Gershon Alpert and Dani Cohen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:43
  30. In young people with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy weakness of the hip extensor muscles are associated with limitations in activity. It is important that clinicians can reliably measure hip extensor muscle s...

    Authors: Kate M Dyball, Nicholas F Taylor and Karen J Dodd
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:42
  31. Fever is one of the most common presenting complaints in paediatrics and general practice. In the majority of cases nothing harmful is diagnosed. However, the subjective meaning of fever often varies between d...

    Authors: Thorsten Langer, Miriam Pfeifer, Aynur Soenmez, Bilge Tarhan, Elke Jeschke and Thomas Ostermann
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:41
  32. The safety and effectiveness of psychotropic drug use in the paediatric population is widely debated, in particular because of the lack of data concerning long term effects.

    Authors: Antonio Clavenna, Margherita Andretta, Paola Pilati, Maurizio Dusi, Michele Gangemi, Maria Beatrice Gattoni, Giuseppe Lombardo, Leonardo Zoccante, Luigi Mezzalira and Maurizio Bonati
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:40
  33. Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal dise...

    Authors: Luregn J Schlapbach, Stefanie Frey, Susanna Bigler, Chiem Manh-Nhi, Christoph Aebi, Mathias Nelle and Jean-Marc Nuoffer
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:38
  34. The vulnerability of newborn babies' skin creates the potential for a number of skin problems. Despite this, there remains a dearth of good quality evidence to inform practice. Published studies comparing wate...

    Authors: Tina Lavender, Carol Bedwell, Ediri O'Brien, Michael J Cork, Mark Turner and Anna Hart
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:35
  35. The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness and the c...

    Authors: Iris Niederer, Susi Kriemler, Janine Gut, Tim Hartmann, Christian Schindler, Jérôme Barral and Jardena J Puder
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:34
  36. Breastfeeding (BF) is protective against overweight and is associated with dietary behaviour. The aims of our study were to assess the relationship between exclusive BF duration and BMI, waist circumference (W...

    Authors: Marlou LA De Kroon, Carry M Renders, Michelle PJ Buskermolen, Jacobus P Van Wouwe, Stef van Buuren and Remy A Hirasing
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:33
  37. Celiac disease often goes undiagnosed. Mass screening might be an option to reduce the public health burden of untreated celiac disease. However, mass screening is still controversial since it is uncertain whe...

    Authors: Anna Rosén, Anneli Ivarsson, Katrina Nordyke, Eva Karlsson, Annelie Carlsson, Lars Danielsson, Lotta Högberg and Maria Emmelin
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:32
  38. Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) contemporaneously with malignant disease or immunosuppression represents a particular challenge and requires individualized decisions and treatment. Although the inc...

    Authors: Verena Wiegering, Judith Schick, Meinrad Beer, Benedikt Weissbrich, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Hermann J Girschick, Johannes Liese, Paul G Schlegel and Matthias Eyrich
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:31
  39. Infections by a variety of pathogens are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality during perinatal period. The susceptibility of neonates to bacterial infections has been attributed to immaturity of inna...

    Authors: Athanasios Filias, Georgios L Theodorou, Sofia Mouzopoulou, Anastasia A Varvarigou, Stephanos Mantagos and Marina Karakantza
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:29
  40. In young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) parents have full responsibility for the diabetes-management of their child (e.g. blood glucose monitoring, and administering insulin). Behavioral tasks i...

    Authors: Anke M Nieuwesteeg, Frans Pouwer, Hedwig JA van Bakel, Wilco HM Emons, Henk-Jan Aanstoot, Roelof Odink and Esther E Hartman
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:28
  41. Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of...

    Authors: Joerg J Meerpohl, Robert F Wolff, Gerd Antes and Erik von Elm
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:27
  42. How youth perceive marketing messages in sports is poorly understood. We evaluated whether youth perceive that the imagery of a specific sports marketing advertisement contained smoking-related messages.

    Authors: Nathalie Auger, Mark Daniel, Bärbel Knäuper, Marie-France Raynault and Barry Pless
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:26
  43. Physicians, nurses and hospital pharmacists were surveyed to assess attitudes of hospital-based pediatric caregivers regarding the dosing of medicine to children. Our objectives were to gauge how current resou...

    Authors: Jeffrey S Barrett, Mahesh Narayan, Dimple Patel, Athena F Zuppa and Peter C Adamson
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2011 11:25

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