Who, Global and regional trends: Although strides have been made in thehttps://data.unicef.org/topic/hivaids/global-regional-trends/ HIV response, children are still affected by the epidemic.2021
World Health Organization. World Health Organization Global elimination of congenital syphilis: rationale and strategy for action. 2007 Available at http:// apps.who.int/iris/bit stream/10665/43782/1/9789241595858_eng.pdf. 2017.
World Health Organization. World Health Organization Global guidance on criteria and processes for validation: elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. 2014. Available at: http://18.104.22.168/. www.who.int/iris/bit-stream/10665/112858/1/9789241505888_eng.pdf. 2017.
Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, Kiseleve P, Scott G, O’Sullivan MJ.Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1173–80.
Farahani FK, Shah I, Cleland J, Mohammadi MR. Adolescent males and young females in tehran: differing perspectives, behaviors and needs for reproductive health and implications for gender sensitive interventions. J Reprod Infertil. 2012;13(2):101–10.
Sajadi L, Mirzazadeh A, Navadeh S, Osooli M, Khajehkazemi R, Gouya MM, et al. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours among female sex workers in Iran: results of the national biobehavioural survey, 2010. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(3):37–40.
Feyera A, Megerssa B, Legesse D, Hailemichael F. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS: Service utilization and associated factors among selected public health facilities in Ethiopia. Med Pract Rev. 2017;8(1):1–13.
A Tolle M, Dewey D. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection,” HIV Curriculum for theHealth Professional, Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative, Houston, TX, USA, 2010.
National AIDS Committee Secretariat, Ministry of Health and Medical Education. HIV control monitoring report in Islamic Republic of Iran Tehran. Iran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education; 2017.
Hurst SA, Appelgren KE, Kourtis AP. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HumanImmunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV): the role of neonatal andinfant prophylaxis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13(2):169–81.
ZallKusek J, Rist R. Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluationsystem: a handbook for development practitioners. Washington, D.C.: TheWorld Bank; 2004.
Remme M, Siapka M, Vassall A, Heise L, Jacobi J, Ahumada C, et al. The cost and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive interventions for HIV: a systematic review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17(1):19228.
Nduati EW, Hassan AS, Knight MG, Muema DM, Jahangir MN, Mwaringa SL, et al. Outcomes of prevention of mother tochild transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 inrural Kenya a cohort study. BMC Pub Health. 2015;15:1008.
World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on the use ofantiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection.. Recommendations for a publichealth approach. Jun. 2013 http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/download/en/. Current WHO guidelines for preventing HIV infection in infants.2014.
Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-InfectedWomen for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in theUnited States. Available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/PerinatalGL.pdf. Current U.S. guidelines for preventing HIV infection in infants.2014
Desmonde S, Coffie P, Aka E, Amani-Bosse C, Messou E, Dabis F, et al. Severe morbidity and mortality in untreated HIV-infected children in a paediatric care programme in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, 2004–2009. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:182.
Doherty K, Ciaranello A. What is needed to eliminate new pediatric HIV infections: the contribution of model-based analyses. Cronin HIV AIDS. 2013;8:457–66.
Halperin DT, Stover J, Reynolds HW. Benefits and costs ofexpanding access to family planning programs to women living with HIV. AIDS. 2009;23(1):S123–30.
Duff P, Kipp W, Wild TC, Rubaale T, Okech-Ojony J. Barriers to accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy by HIVpositive women attending an antenatal clinic in a regionalhospital in western Uganda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13:37.
Mepham S, Zondi Z, Mbuyazi A, Mkhwanazi N, Newell ML. Challenges in PMTCT antiretroviral adherence innorthern KwaZulu-Natal. South Africa AIDS Care. 2011;23:741–7.
Mellins CA, Chu C, Malee K, Allison S, Smith R, Harris L, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment among pregnant and postpartum HIV-infected women. AIDS Care. 2008;20(8):958–68.
Onono M, Owuor K, Turan J, Bukusi EA, Gray GE, Cohen CR. The role of maternal, health system, and psychosocialfactors in prevention of mother-to-child transmission failurein the era of programmatic scale up in western Kenya: a casecontrol study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29:204–11.
Gourlay A, Birdthistle I, Mburu G, Iorpenda K, Wringe A. Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission ofHIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18588.
Cataldo F, Chiwaula L, Nkhata M, van Lettow M, Kasende F, Rosenberg NE, et al. Exploring the Experiences of Women and Health Care Workers in the Context of PMTCT Option B Plus in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(5):517–22.
National Committee for AIDS Care and Treatment. Guidelines for PMTCT of HIV. The Fifth Strategic Plan for HIV Infection of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2020.
Lorestani RC, Kazemisafa N, Rostamian M, Akya A, Rezaeian S, Bashiri H, Jasemi SV, Ghadiri K. Survival-related factors in HIV/AIDS patients: A retrospective cohort study from 2011 to 2019 in Kermanshah, Iran. Curr HIV Res. 2022;17. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570162X20666220617141619.
Khademi N, Reshadat S, Zangeneh A, Saeidi S, Ghasemi S, Rajabi-Gilan N, et al. A comparative study of the spatial distribution of HIV prevalence in the metropolis of Kermanshah, Iran, in 1996–2014 using geographical information systems. HIV Med. 2017;18(3):220–4.
National AIDS Committee Secretariat MoHaME Islamic Republic of Iran AIDS Progress Report, On Monitoring of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS. 2015.
SeyedAlinaghi S, Taj L, Mazaheri-Tehrani E, Ahsani-Nasab S, Abedinzadeh N, McFarland W, et al. HIV in Iran: onset, responses, and future directions. AIDS. 2021;35(4):529–42.
Bokharaei-Salim F, Kalantari S, Gholamypour Z, Najafi A, Keyvani H, Esghaei M, et al. Investigation of the effects of a prevention of mother-to-child HIVtransmission program among Iranian neonates. Arch Virol. 2018;163(5):1179–85.
AfsarKazeroni P, Gouya MM, Tira M, Sargolzaiie M, Eybpoosh S, Majdfar Z, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission program in Iran. BMC Public Health. 2021;21:483.
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China. Implementatin plan forprevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Beijing: Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China; 2004.
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China. China’s action plan forreducing and preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS (2006–2010). Beijing: Ministry ofHealth of the People’s Republic of China; 2008.
Zeng H, Chow EPF, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Tang M, Li L, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmissioncascade in China: a systematic review andmeta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect. 2016;92:116–23.
Wu Y, Gao J, Qin J, He J, Wang A, Wang H, et al. Mother-to-child transmission prevention of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and hepatitis B virus. Women and Birth. 2019;32(6):570–8.
Barker PM, Mphatswe W, Rollins N. Antiretroviral drugs in the cupboard are notenough: the impact of health systems’ performance on mother-to-child transmissionof HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:e45–8.
Ishikawa N, Newman L, Taylor M, Essajee S, Pendse R, Ghidinelli M. Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba and Thailand. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94(11):787-787A.
Peters H, Francis K, Sconza R, Horn A, C SP, Tookey PA, et al. UK mother-to-child HIV transmission rates continue to decline: 2012–2014. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(4):527–8.
Manzi M, Zachariah R, Teck R, Buhendwa L, Kazima J, Bakali E, et al. High acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing but unacceptable loss to follow up in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in rural Malawi: scaling-up requires a different way of acting. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10(12):1242–50.
World Health Organization. Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
UNICEF. Children and AIDS fifth stocktaking report. New York: UNICEF; 2010.
Dong Y, Guo W, Gui X, Liu Y, Yan Y, Feng L, et al. Preventing mother to child transmission of HIV: lessons learned from China. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20:792.
Kassa GM. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection and its associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):216.
Boer K, England K, Godfried M, Thorne C. Mode of delivery in HIV-infected pregnant women and prevention of mother-to-child transmission: changing practices in Western Europe. HIV Med. 2010;11(6):368–78.
Newell ML. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: challenges for the current decade. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:1138–44.
WHO. Consolidated guideline on sexual and reproductive health and rightsof womenliving with HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
WHO. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treatingand preventing HIV infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.
Sirengo M, Muthoni L, Kellogg TA, Kim AA, Katana A, Mwanyumba S, et al. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;66(1):S66–74.
Bhatta M, Nandi S, Dutta N, Dutta S, Saha MK. HIV care among elderly population: systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Res Hum Retrovir. 2020;36(6):475–89.
Barral MF, de Oliveira GR, Lobato RC, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Martínez AM, Gonçalves CV. Risk factors of HIV-1 vertical transmission (VT) and the influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy outcome. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014;56(2):133–8.
Sakha MA, Kazerooni PA, Lari MA, Sayadi M, Azar FE, Motazedian N. Effect of an educational intervention on knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviours related to HIV and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in southern Iran: a quasi-experimental study. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(9):727–35.
Kohler PK, Okanda J, Kinuthia J, Mills LA, Olilo G, Odhiambo F, et al. Community-based evaluation of PMTCTuptake in Nyanza Province, Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110110.
Tarahomi M, Yaghmaie F, Asadi S, Asgari S, Fatemi F, Zeraati H, et al. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS: do Iranian pregnant mothers know about it? J Reprod Infertility. 2010;11(1):53.
Behboodi-Moghadam Z, Khalajinia Z, Nasrabadi AR, Mohraz M, Gharacheh M. Pregnancy through the Lens of Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative Study. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2016;15(2):148–52.
Powis KM, Smeaton L, Ogwu A, Lockman S, Dryden-Peterson S, vanWidenfelt E, et al. Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on longitudinalgrowth of HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Botswana. J Acquir ImmuneDefic Syndr. 2011;56(2):131–8.
Newell ML, CortinaBorja M, Thorne C, Peckham C. Height, Weight, and Growth in Children Born to Mothers With HIV-1 Infection in Europe. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e52.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical Growth Charts. https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm.
Sudfeld CR, Lei Q, Chinyanga Y, Tumbare E, Khan N, Dapaah-Siakwan F. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016;73(2):182–9.
Rosala-Hallas A, Bartlett JW, Filteau S. Growth of HIV-exposed uninfected, compared with HIV-unexposed, Zambian children: a longitudinal analysis from infancy to school age. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17(1):80.
Omoni AO, Ntozini R, Evans C, Prendergast AJ, Moulton LH, Christian PS, Humphrey JH. Child Growth According to Maternal and Child HIV Status in Zimbabwe. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36(9):869–76.
Bailey RC, Kamenga MC, Nsuami MJ, Nieburg P, St Louis ME. Growth of children according to maternal and child HIV, immunological and disease characteristics: a prospective cohort study in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28(3):532–40.
European Collaborative Study. Height, weight and growth in children bornto motherswith HIV-1 infection in Europe. Pediatrics. 2003;111:e52-60.
Lepage P, Msellati P, Hitimana DG, Bazubagira A, Van Goethem C, Simonon A, et al. Growth of human immunodeficiency type 1-infected and uninfected children: a prospective cohort study in Kigali, Rwanda, 1988 to 1993. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996;15(6):479–85.
Drotar D, Olness K, Wiznitzer M, Guay L, Marum L, Svilar G, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of Ugandan infants with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatrics. 1997;100(1):E5.
Hankin C, Thorne C, Peckham C, Newell ML. The health and social environment ofuninfected infants born to HIV-infected women. AIDS Care. 2004;16(3):293–303.
Isanaka S, Duggan C, Fawzi WW. Patterns of postnatal growth in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(6):343–59.
Rosala-Hallas A, Bartlett JW, Filteau S. Growth of HIV-exposed uninfected, compared with HIV-unexposed, Zambian children: a longitudinal analysisfrom infancy to school age. BMC Pediatr. 2017;17:80.
Wei W, Li X, Tu X, Zhao J, Zhao G. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China. AIDS Care. 2016;28 1(1):99–105.
Bobat R, Coovadia H, Moodley D, Coutsoudis A, Gouws E. Growth inearly childhood in a cohort of children born to HIV-1 infected womenfrom Durban. South Africa Ann Trop Paediatr. 2001;21:203–10.
Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47(RR-4):1–43.