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Table 2 Body composition parameters of subjects stratified by sex and pubertal status

From: The heritability of body composition

  Prepubertal children Adolescents   
Parameter Boys
n  = 26
Girls
n  = 29
p 1 Boys
n  = 32
Girls
n  = 27
p 2 p 3 p 4
Age, years 8.5 ± 2.1 8.1 ± 1.5 0.483 13.0 ± 1.7 11.3 ± 2.8 0.007 < 0.001 < 0.001
Body mass index, z-score -0.63 ± 1.23 -0.14 ± 1.26 0.145 0.14 ± 1.19 0.47 ± 0.89 0.247 0.019 0.045
Fat percentage 19.9 ± 5.6 23.3 ± 4.9 0.020 22.0 ± 8.6 27.3 ± 6.8 0.011 0.301 0.015
Truncal fat percentage 15.7 ± 5.9 17.5 ± 5.3 0.232 17.9 ± 8.7 21.5 ± 7.3 0.094 0.270 0.023
Fat free mass, kg 19.4 ± 5.9 19.9 ± 4.8 0.695 36.9 ± 11.1 32.6 ± 10.4 0.129 < 0.001 < 0.001
Appendicular skeletal muscle mass, kg 6.41 ± 3.09 7.04 ± 2.13 0.382 15.08 ± 5.57 12.53 ± 4.78 0.066 < 0.001 < 0.001
Total body water, percentage 58.6 ± 4.1 56.1 ± 3.6 0.018 57.2 ± 6.3 53.2 ± 5.0 0.011 < 0.001 < 0.001
Muscle-to-fat ratio 1.34 ± 0.41 1.19 ± 0.26 0.099 1.59 ± 0.53 1.05 ± 0.24 < 0.001 0.050 0.045
Sarcopenic index, kg/m2 3.97 ± 1.10 4.33 ± 0.71 0.149 6.20 ± 1.42 5.39 ± 1.13 0.021 < 0.001 < 0.001
Basal metabolic rate, kcal 1114.0 ± 135.6 1019.2 ± 104.5 0.005 1494.9 ± 254.5 1287.0 ± 254.5 0.003 < 0.001 < 0.001
Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) = the sum of muscle mass of four limbs, muscle-to-fat ratio [MFR = ASMM (kg) /fat mass (kg)] and sarcopenic index [(SI = ASMM (kg) / height (meter)²]. P1 compares between prepubertal boys and girls; p2 compares between adolescent boys and girls; p3 compares between prepubertal and adolescent boys and p4 compares between prepubertal and adolescent girls. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p ≤ 0.05 level