Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample socio-demographic characteristics, maternal health behaviors, and childhood obesity and blood pressure outcomes of the singleton children from the existing CENTURY study and Linked CENTURY study (linked with each child’s Massachusetts birth certificate), 1980–2008

From: The Linked CENTURY Study: linking three decades of clinical and public health data to examine disparities in childhood obesity

  CENTURY Study Linked CENTURY Study
Characteristics Total N % Total N %
Any data at age ≤ 18 years 269959   200343  
 Any data at age < 2 years 121389 45.0 % 104584 52.2 %
 Any data at age 5 years 72195 26.7 % 57547 28.7 %
 Any data at age 11 years 61270 22.7 % 44812 22.4 %
 Any data at age 17 years 46559 17.2 % 31326 15.6 %
Race/ethnicity Child’s race/ethnicity Mother’s race/ethnicity
 White 121565 45.0 % 151643 75.7 %
 Black 23906 8.9 % 23144 11.6 %
 Hispanic 9018 3.3 % 9123 4.6 %
 Asian 7941 2.9 % 11421 5.7 %
 Other 11076 4.1 % 2396 1.2 %
 Missing 96453 35.7 % 2616 1.3 %
Insurance Medical insuranced Delivery paymenta, e
 Private 73412 27.2 % 136022 87.5 %
 Medicaid 18215 6.7 % 17116 11.0 %
 Other - - 1960 1.3 %
 Missing 178332 66.1 % 398 0.3 %
Mother US born     
 No    39972 20.0 %
 Yes    158965 79.4 %
 Missing    1406 0.7 %
Mother married at time of birth     
 No    31232 15.6 %
 Yes    169026 84.4 %
 Missing    85 0.0 %
Mother smoked during pregnancyb     
 No    109846 93.9 %
 Yes    6852 5.9 %
 Missing    264 0.2 %
Mother had gestational diabetes mellitusc     
 No    80953 96.1 %
 Yes    2884 3.4 %
 Missing    413 0.5 %
Cesarean deliverya     
 No    118439 76.2 %
 Yes    36256 23.3 %
 Missing    801 0.5 %
Breastfeeding initiationa     
 No    36097 23.2 %
 Yes    118638 76.3 %
 Missing    761 0.5 %
Weight-for-length ≥ 95th percentile anytime between 1 and 24 months [69] 27331 22.5 % 23756 22.7 %
BMI ≥ 95th percentile [53]     
 Age 5 years 8566 11.9 % 6934 12.0 %
 Age 11 years 9619 15.7 % 7184 16.0 %
 Age 17 years 5566 12.0 % 3758 12.0 %
Systolic blood pressure z-score [55] N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD)
 Age 5 years 66391 −0.19 (0.81) 52997 −0.20 (0.81)
 Age 11 years 57935 0.02 (0.89) 42391 0.02 (0.89)
 Age 17 years 44652 −0.11 (0.97) 30078 −0.11 (0.97)
Diastolic blood pressure z-score [55] N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD)
 Age 5 years 66391 0.08 (0.71) 52997 0.08 (0.71)
 Age 11 years 57935 0.17 (0.74) 42391 0.17 (0.73)
 Age 17 years 44652 0.11 (0.75) 30078 0.10 (0.74)
  1. aFrom 1987
  2. bFrom 1992
  3. cFrom 1996
  4. dType of medical insurance at most recent visit recorded in clinical database
  5. eMedical insurance status for the delivery recorded on the birth certificate