- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants
© Issa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 9 February 2011
- Accepted: 9 September 2011
- Published: 9 September 2011
There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants.
Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis method.
A total of 61/492 (12.4%) infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%), particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%), each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9%) and C. parapsilosis (3.8%).
A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P < 0.05) with these enzymes than other Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test.
The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram revealed the presence of 29 genotypes, and of these one genotype accounted for 22% of the isolates.
This study presents important epidemiological features of Candida colonization of Jordanian infants.
- Candida colonization
- antifungal susceptibility
Candida colonization of infants is a risk factor for developing candidiasis, especially in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) [1–4]. During the past decade colonization and candidaemia with non-albicans Candida species has risen dramatically with high rates of carriage in hospitalized infants including neonates admitted to NICU [2, 5, 6].
It is generally observed that most infant candidiasis is thought to be endogenously acquired through prior colonization of different parts of the body, while other studies reported that certain outbreaks of Candida infection were caused by nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units [7–10].
The potential pathogenesis of Candida species appears to depend on many immunological and environmental host factors and strain virulence factors, including hyphae and biofilm formation, drug resistance and the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes [11–15].
Phenotyping and genotyping of Candida isolates are important features can be used to investigate the common genotypes and possible route of transmission and infection within hospitals and community, especially molecular typing of Candida isolates is highly useful tool in detection source of nosocomial infections [16–19]. This study was carried out to investigate the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida colonizing hospitalized and non-hospitalized Jordanian infants.
This prospective study was conducted at the Jordan University Hospital over a period of 10-month; from March 2008 to December 2008. The study has been approved by the high graduate committees of the Faculty of Medicine, and ethics committee of Jordan Hospital University and Faculty of Graduate studies/University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Verbal consent was obtained from all mothers of infants after explaining the purpose of the study.
A total of 492 infants (aged one year or less) were included in this study over a period of 10-month (2008-2009) as follows: Group 1; 265 neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Group 2; 37 infants admitted to pediatric ward (PW) due to urinary tract or kidney problems. Group 3; 190 infants examined in pediatric outpatients clinic. For each patient important demographic characteristics were recorded on special study form, and all hospitalized neonates and infants were observed for developing candidaemia.
Pre-wetted cotton swabs with sterile saline were used to collect culture specimens from oral and rectal sites of each infant. For neonates in the NICU; oral and rectal swabs were collected within 24 hr of birth, day seven and after every one week until the baby discharged or died. Fresh oral and rectal specimens were handled and inoculated directly on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates (SDA, Oxoid, Ltd, Basingstoke, UK) which supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.05 g/l) and incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hrs.
All growth of yeast-like colonies was subsequently identified by subculture 2-3 representative colonies on a CHROMagar Candida medium (Oxoid, Ltd, Basingstoke, UK) and incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hr. Candida growth was identified by detection of various color characteristics on CHROMagar Candida plates . All Candida species isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system (Remel Inc, Lenexa, KS). Reference standard strains of C. albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 22553) and C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) were subcultured on the same medium as controls.
Detection of extracellular production of aspartyl proteinases was made for all Candida isolates by demonstration and measurement of the clear zone of proteolysis around Candida colony growth in bovine serum albumin agar . Production of extracellular phospholipaes activity was estimated by growing Candida on egg-yolk agar and observing the precipitation zone around the Candida colony growth . Beta-hemolysin production was evaluated using a fresh human blood agar plate and after incubation for 48 hr . Reference strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10231) served as positive control for proteinase and phospholipaes assays and C. albicans (ATCC 90028) served as positive control for haemolysin assay.
Antifungal susceptibility test
Etests were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions (AB Biodisk, Sweden). The antifungal agents used were amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin. A quality control C. albicans strain (ATCC 90028) was included.
Determination of Candida genotype was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis method and PCR amplification with three random oligonucleotides single primers T3B primer 5'-d(AGG TCG CGG GTT CGA ATCC) 3' . RSD 10 primer 5'-d(CCG CAG CCA)-3' and RSD 12 primer 5'-d(GGT CCG TGT TTC AAG ACG)-3' .
All Data analysis were performed using the computerized statistical program Statistical Package of Social Science program (SPSS, version 16, USA) and was used to determine the P values and investigated phylogenetic tree (dendrogram) showing the genetic relatedness among the isolates which was constructed based on genetic similarities. In all statistical tests, the differences were considered to be statistically significant if p-value (< 0.05).
Demographic Characteristics of 492 investigated infant with Positive Candida colonization from oral/rectal or both specimens
Age by group
0 - 28 days (neonates)
29 days - 1 year (infants)
Patients by group
1 - 7 days
8 - 30 days
> 30 days
Distribution of Candida species isolates colonizing oral and rectal sites of 61 infant patients*
Type of Candida
Antifungal susceptibility results of the 79 oral and rectal Candida isolates
(no. of isolates)
% susceptible(MIC range/mg/L)
(0.002 - 1.5)
(0.002 - 0.75)
0.5 - 1.5))
1.5 - 3))
(0.125 - 75)
Distribution of proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin among Candida species isolates
No. of isolates
This study contributes to increase our understanding of the epidemiology of Candida colonization in neonates and infants whether hospitalized or not.
This study was partly supported by grant from the Dean of Research
(No. 10/2008-2009), University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
- Borges RM, Soares LR, de Brito CS, de Brito DV, Abdallah VO, Filho PP: Risk factors associated with colonization by Candida spp in neonates hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2009, 42 (4): 431-5. 10.1590/S0037-86822009000400014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singhi S, Rao R, Chakrabarti A: Candida colonization and candedemia in a pediatric intensive care unit, Pediatric. Crit Care Med. 2008, 9 (1): 91-95. 10.1097/01.PCC.0000298643.48547.83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Farmaki E, Evdoridou J, Pouliou T, Bibashi E, Panagopoulou P, Filioti J, Benos A, Sofianou D, Kremenopoulos G, Roilides E: Fungal colonization in the neonatal intensive care unit: risk factors, drug susceptibility, and association with invasive fungal infections. Am J Perinatol. 2007, 24 (2): 127-35. 10.1055/s-2007-970078.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan P, Eddama O, Weisman LE: Patient isolation measures for infants with candida colonization or infection for preventing or reducing transmission of candida in neonatal units. Cochrane Database Syst Rev J. 2007, CD006068-Review, 3Google Scholar
- Baradkar VP, Mathur M, Kumar S, Rathi M: Candida glabrata: Emerging pathogen in neonatal sepsis. Annals Tropical Medicine Public Health. 2008, 1 (1): 5-8. 10.4103/1755-6783.43070.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Badran EF, Al Baramki JH, Al Shamyleh A, Shehabi A, Khuri-Bulos N: Epidemiology and clinical outcome of candidemia among Jordanian newborns over a 10-year period. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008, 40: 1-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asmundsdottir LR, Erlendsdottir H, Haraldsson G, Guo H, Xu J, Gottfredsson M: Molecular Epidemiology of Candidemia: evidence of clusters of smoldering nosocomial infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2008, 47 (2): 17-24. 10.1086/589298.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blot S, Dimopoulos G, Rello J, Vogelaers D: Is Candida really a threat in the ICU?. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2008, 14 (5): 600-4. 10.1097/MCC.0b013e32830f1dff.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smith PB, Steinbach WJ, Benjamin DK: Neonatal Candidiasis. Infect dis clin North Am. 2005, 19: 603-615. 10.1016/j.idc.2005.05.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bendel CM: Colonization and epithelial adhesion in the pathogenesis of neonatal candidiasis. Semin Perinatol. 2003, 27 (5): 357-364. 10.1016/S0146-0005(03)00059-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thein ZM, Seneviratne CJ, Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP: Community lifestyle of Candida in mixed biofilms: a mini review. Mycoses. 2009, 52 (6): 467-75. 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01719.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsang CS, Chu FC, Leung WK, Jin LJ, Samaranayake LP, Siu SC: Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicansisolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Microbiol. 2007, 56: 1393-1398. 10.1099/jmm.0.47303-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bruzual I, Riggle P, Hadley S, Kumamoto CA: Biofilm formation by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains is inhibited by fluconazole. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007, 59 (3): 441-50. 10.1093/jac/dkl521.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gokce G, Cerikcioglu N, Yagci A: Acid proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm production of Candida species isolated from blood cultures. Mycopathologia. 2007, 164: 265-269. 10.1007/s11046-007-9053-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schaller M, Borelli C, Korting HC, Hube B: Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans. Mycoses. 2005, 48 (6): 365-377. 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2005.01165.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asbeck EC, Markham AM, Clemons KV, Stevens DA: Candida parapsilosis fungemia in neonates: genotyping results suggest healthcare workers hands as source, and review of published studies. Mycopathologia. 2007, 164: 287-293. 10.1007/s11046-007-9054-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pires-Gonc RH, Miranda ET, Baeza LC, Matsumoto MT, Zaia JE, Mendes-Giannini MJS: Genetic relatedness of commensal strains of Candida albicans carried in the oral cavity of patients' dental prosthesis users in Brazil. Mycopathologia. 2007, 164: 255-263. 10.1007/s11046-007-9052-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chong PP, Chieng DC, Low LY, Hafeez A, Shamsudin MN, Ng KP: Recurrent candidaemia in a neonate with Hirschsprung's disease: fluconazole resistance and genetic relatedness of eight Candida tropicalis isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2006, 55: 423-428. 10.1099/jmm.0.46045-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Viviani MA, Cogliati M, Esposto MC, Prigitano A, Anna Tortorano M: Four-Year Persistence of a Single Candida albicans Genotype Causing Bloodstream Infections in a Surgical Ward Proven by Multilocus Sequence Typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2006, 44 (1): 218-221. 10.1128/JCM.44.1.218-221.2006.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Shehabi AA, Nazzal SA, Dajani N: Putative Virulence Factors of Candida species Colonizing Respiratory Tracts of Patients. Microb Ecol Health and Dis. 2004, 16: 214-217. 10.1080/08910600410025419.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Correia A, Sampaio P, Almeida J, Pais C: Study of Molecular Epidemiology of Candidiasis in Portugal by PCR Fingerprinting of Candida Clinical Isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2004, 42 (12): 5899-5903. 10.1128/JCM.42.12.5899-5903.2004.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Samaranayake LP, Dassanayake RS, Yau JYY, Tsang WK, Cheung BPK, Yeung KWS: Genotypic shuffling' of sequential clones of Candida albicans in HIV-infected individuals with and without symptomatic oral candidiasis. J Med Microbiol. 2003, 52: 349-359. 10.1099/jmm.0.04972-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dar-Odeh NS, Shehabi AA: Oral Candidosis in patients with removable dentures. Mycosis. 2003, 46: 187-191. 10.1046/j.1439-0507.2003.00871.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Furlaneto-Maia L, Specian AF, Bizerra FC, Oliveira MT, Furlaneto MC: In Vitro Evaluation of Putative Virulence Attributes of Oral Isolates of Candida spp. Obtained from Elderly Healthy Individuals. Mycopathologia. 2008, 166: 209-217. 10.1007/s11046-008-9139-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Angiolella L, Stringaro AR, De Bernardis F, Posteraro B, Bonito M, Toccacieli L, Torosantucci A, Colone M, Sanguinetti M, Cassone A, Palamara AT: Increase of virulence and its phenotypic traits in drug-resistant strains of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008, 52 (3): 927-36. 10.1128/AAC.01223-07.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/11/79/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.