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  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool to study brain growth and organization in preterm neonates for clinical and research purposes, but its practicality can be limited by time and medical constrai...

    Authors: Nathalie L Maitre, James C Slaughter, Ann R Stark, Judy L Aschner and Adam W Anderson
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:84
  2. Hyperlactatemia upon admission is a documented risk factor for mortality in critically ill adult patients. However, the predictive significance of a single lactate measurement at admission for mortality in the...

    Authors: Zhenjiang Bai, Xueping Zhu, Mengxia Li, Jun Hua, Ying Li, Jian Pan, Jian Wang and Yanhong Li
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:83
  3. Industrialization in the northwest provinces of the People’s Republic of China is accelerating rapid increases in early life environmental exposures, yet no publications have assessed health care provider capa...

    Authors: Leonardo Trasande, Jingping Niu, Juansheng Li, Xingrong Liu, Benzhong Zhang, Zhilan Li, Guowu Ding, Yingbiao Sun, Meichi Chen, Xiaobin Hu, Lung-Chi Chen, Alan Mendelsohn, Yu Chen and Qingshan Qu
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:82
  4. There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary...

    Authors: Hirotaka Ochiai, Takako Shirasawa, Rimei Nishimura, Hinako Nanri, Tadahiro Ohtsu, Hiromi Hoshino, Naoko Tajima and Akatsuki Kokaze
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:81
  5. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are leading causes of hospitalisation in children. Birth defects occur in 5% of live births in Western Australia (WA). The association between birth defects and ALRI ...

    Authors: Khadra A Jama-Alol, Hannah C Moore, Peter Jacoby, Carol Bower and Deborah Lehmann
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:80
  6. Vitamin A deficiency can cause anemia as the nutrient is essential for hematopoiesis, mobilization of iron store and immunity. Nevertheless, clinical trials endeavored to evaluate the effect of Vitamin A Suppl...

    Authors: Samson Gebremedhin
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:79
  7. Childhood obesity and early puberty are intermediate risk factors for later metabolic and reproductive disorders including diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and breast cancer. Atypical methylation ...

    Authors: Theresa Ryan Stueve, Mary S Wolff, Ashley Pajak, Susan L Teitelbaum and Jia Chen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:78
  8. Mexico has the highest adult overweight and obesity prevalence in the Americas; 23.8% of children <5 years old are at risk for overweight and 9.7% are already overweight or obese. Creciendo Sanos was a pilot i...

    Authors: Gloria Oliva Martínez-Andrade, Elizabeth M Cespedes, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Guillermina Romero-Quechol, Marco Aurelio González-Unzaga, María Amalia Benítez-Trejo, Samuel Flores-Huerta, Chrissy Horan, Jess Haines, Elsie M Taveras, Ricardo Pérez-Cuevas and Matthew W Gillman
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:77
  9. Preterm infants are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Furthermore, nutrition may play a key role in supporting neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a nutrient-enriched formula fe...

    Authors: Maria Lorella Giannì, Paola Roggero, Orsola Amato, Odoardo Picciolini, Pasqua Piemontese, Nadia Liotto, Francesca Taroni and Fabio Mosca
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:74
  10. Idiopathic renal hypouricemia (iRHUC) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder, characterized by impaired tubular uric acid transport, re-absorption insufficiency and/or the acceleration of secretions. So...

    Authors: Huijun Shen, Chunyue Feng, Xia Jin, Jianhua Mao, Haidong Fu, Weizhong Gu, Ai’min Liu, Qiang Shu and Lizhong Du
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:73
  11. Studies addressing the influence of early sexual maturation on the excess of body weight and height of children and adolescents are scarce. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of sexual maturat...

    Authors: Jucemar Benedet, Adair da Silva Lopes, Fernando Adami, Patrícia de Fragas Hinnig and Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:72
  12. Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, o...

    Authors: Laura Elwell, Jane Powell, Sharon Wordsworth and Carole Cummins
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:71
  13. Diabetes mellitus may be present in patients with cystic fibrosis starting in the second decade of life. The prevalence increases rapidly with increasing age. As life-expectancy increases in cystic fibrosis, c...

    Authors: Manfred Ballmann, Dominique Hubert, Barouk M Assael, Kai Kronfeld, Marguerite Honer and Reinhard W Holl
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:70
  14. Child health care is an important arena for tobacco prevention in Sweden. The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experiences from participating in a nursebased tobacco prevention intervention.

    Authors: AnnaKarin Johansson, Noomi Carlsson, Helena Almfors, Monica Rosèn and Siw Alehagen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:69
  15. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a strong predictor of mortality in adult patients with various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and may be a strong prognostic marker in extremely low birth weight (ELBW...

    Authors: Alain Cuna, Jegen Kandasamy and Brian Sims
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:68
  16. We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a sedation protocol based on intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam (INKM) administered by a mucosal ato...

    Authors: Danilo Buonsenso, Giovanni Barone, Piero Valentini, Filomena Pierri, Riccardo Riccardi and Antonio Chiaretti
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:67
  17. Hearing loss in children born before 32 weeks of gestation is more prevalent than in full term infants. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are routinely used to treat bacterial infections in babies on neonatal intensi...

    Authors: Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Shamima Rahman, Kathy Chant and Neil Marlow
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:66
  18. There is some evidence of a relationship between psychosocial health and the incidence of ear infections and hearing problems in young children. There is however little longitudinal evidence investigating this...

    Authors: Anthony Hogan, Rebecca L Phillips, Damien Howard and Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:65
  19. Arterial blood pressure tends to rise with growth and development. Elevated blood pressure (EBP) in children usually occurs during the first two decades of life, and the children with hypertension tend to grow...

    Authors: Odutola I Odetunde, Emeka E Neboh, Josephat M Chinawa, Henrietta U Okafor, Oluwatoyin A Odetunde, Osita U Ezenwosu and Uchenna Ekwochi
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:64
  20. Non-adherence to prescribed treatments is the primary cause of treatment failure in pediatric long-term conditions. Greater understanding of parents and caregivers’ reasons for non-adherence can help to addres...

    Authors: Miriam Santer, Nicola Ring, Lucy Yardley, Adam WA Geraghty and Sally Wyke
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:63
  21. A child who suffers a fracture or a soft-tissue injury at a young age faces an increased risk of subsequent injuries during childhood. This risk could be related to personal and family characteristics or to lo...

    Authors: Johan von Heideken, Tobias Svensson, Maura Iversen, Anders Ekbom and Per-Mats Janarv
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:62
  22. Injury prediction scores facilitate the development of clinical management protocols to decrease mortality. However, most of the previously developed scores are limited in scope and are non-specific for use in...

    Authors: Sakda Arj-ong Vallipakorn, Adisak Plitapolkarnpim, Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Pimpa Techakamolsuk, Gary A Smith and Ammarin Thakkinstian
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:60
  23. Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose...

    Authors: Jan Däbritz, Michael Mühlbauer, Dirk Domagk, Nicole Voos, Geraldine Henneböhl, Maria L Siemer and Dirk Foell
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:59
  24. The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early...

    Authors: Parul Christian, Laura E Murray-Kolb, James M Tielsch, Joanne Katz, Steven C LeClerq and Subarna K Khatry
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:58
  25. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant intraorbital tumour in paediatric patients. Differentiation of tumour recurrence or metastases from post-therapeutic signal alteration can be challenging, using ...

    Authors: Nicole Hassold, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Beate Winkler, Michael C Kreissl, Karen Ernestus, Meinrad Beer and Henning Neubauer
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:57
  26. Caste, a proxy of socioeconomic position, can influence the neurodevelopment of children through several pathways, including exposure to toxic elements. Studies from developing countries where caste is represe...

    Authors: Rajendra Prasad Parajuli, Takeo Fujiwara, Masahiro Umezaki and Chiho Watanabe
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:56
  27. Failure to thrive and hematochezia in children may be alarm signs warranting endoscopy. In contrast, vascular malformations of the small intestine are uncommon in this age group. We report on a female toddler ...

    Authors: Peter I Kalmar, Thomas Petnehazy, Ulrike Wießpeiner, Meinrad Beer, Almuthe C Hauer, Holger Till and Michael Riccabona
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:55
  28. Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in ...

    Authors: Sarah E Anderson, Stanley Lemeshow and Robert C Whitaker
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:54
  29. Overweight or obesity during adolescence affects almost 25% of Australian youth, yet limited research exists regarding recruitment and engagement of adolescents in weight-management or healthy lifestyle interv...

    Authors: Kyla L Smith, Leon M Straker, Alexandra McManus and Ashley A Fenner
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:53
  30. If the window of opportunity presented by the early years is missed, it becomes increasingly difficult to create a successful life-course. A biopsychosocial model of special educational need with an emphasis o...

    Authors: Margaret Curtin, Denise Baker, Anthony Staines and Ivan J Perry
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:52
  31. An estimated one-third of children younger than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries fail to meet their full developmental potential. The first year of life is a period of critical brain development and...

    Authors: Nona M Jiang, Fahmida Tofail, Shannon N Moonah, Rebecca J Scharf, Mami Taniuchi, Jennie Z Ma, Jena D Hamadani, Emily S Gurley, Eric R Houpt, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Rashidul Haque and William A Petri Jr
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:50
  32. Combining various aspects of child feeding into an age-specific summary index provides a first answer to the question of how best to deal with recommended feeding practices in the context of HIV pandemic. The ...

    Authors: Demewoz Haile, Tefera Belachew, Getenesh Birhanu, Tesfaye Setegn and Sibhatu Biadgilign
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:49
  33. We examined the quality of the information on the use of surfactant and the use of and duration of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), oxygen supplementation, and mechanical ventilation in the D...

    Authors: Sofia Andersson, Jesper Padkær Petersen, Tine Brink Henriksen and Finn Ebbesen
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:47
  34. Between 1990 and 2011, global neonatal mortality decline was slower than that of under-five mortality. As a result, the proportion of under-five deaths due to neonatal mortality increased. This increase is pri...

    Authors: Els Duysburgh, Birgit Kerstens, Melissa Diaz, Vini Fardhdiani, Katherine Ann V Reyes, Khamphong Phommachanh, Marleen Temmerman, Basil Rodriques and Nabila Zaka
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:46
  35. Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries develo...

    Authors: Alessandra Majorana, Maria Grazia Cagetti, Elena Bardellini, Francesca Amadori, Giulio Conti, Laura Strohmenger and Guglielmo Campus
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:45
  36. An understanding of perceptions of parents and health caregivers who assist critically ill neonates is necessary to comprehend their actions and demands. Therefore this study aim to analyze the agreement among...

    Authors: Luciana Sabatini Doto Tannous Elias, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos and Ruth Guinsburg
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:44
  37. Sustained inflations (SI) are advocated for the rapid establishment of FRC after birth in preterm and term infants requiring resuscitation. However, the most appropriate way to deliver a SI is poorly understoo...

    Authors: Graeme R Polglase, David G Tingay, Risha Bhatia, Clare A Berry, Robert J Kopotic, Clinton P Kopotic, Yong Song, Edgardo Szyld, Alan H Jobe and Jane J Pillow
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:43
  38. The clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors is inversely related to the amount of physical activity. However, the question remains as to how much daily physical activity is enough to prevent the onset of...

    Authors: Antonio Stabelini Neto, Wagner de Campos, Géssika Castilho dos Santos and Oldemar Mazzardo Junior
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:42
  39. Compared to other children, those with disability have additional challenges to being physically active. Prader-Willi Syndrome is a genetic form of childhood obesity that is characterized by hypotonia, growth ...

    Authors: Daniela A Rubin, Kathleen S Wilson, Lenny D Wiersma, Jie W Weiss and Debra J Rose
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:41
  40. Although several determinants of global developmental delay (GDD) have been recognized, a significant number of children remain without definitive etiologic diagnosis. The objective of this study was to assess...

    Authors: Loretta Thomaidis, Georgios Zacharias Zantopoulos, Sotirios Fouzas, Lito Mantagou, Chryssa Bakoula and Andreas Konstantopoulos
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:40
  41. While studies of HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral treatment (ART) report no sex differences in immune recovery and virologic response but more ART-associated complications in women, sex differences in dis...

    Authors: Stephanie Shiau, Louise Kuhn, Renate Strehlau, Leigh Martens, Helen McIlleron, Sandra Meredith, Lubbe Wiesner, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams and Stephen M Arpadi
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:39
  42. Vitamin D levels are alarmingly low (<75 nmol/L) in 65-70% of North American children older than 1 year. An increased risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), asthma-related hospitalizations an...

    Authors: Jonathon L Maguire, Catherine S Birken, Mark B Loeb, Muhammad Mamdani, Kevin Thorpe, Jeffrey S Hoch, Tony Mazzulli, Cornelia M Borkhoff, Colin Macarthur and Patricia C Parkin
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:37
  43. The fetal and infant life are periods of rapid development, characterized by high susceptibility to exposures. Birth cohorts provide unique opportunities to study early-life exposures in association with child...

    Authors: Sara Farchi, Francesco Forastiere, Liza Vecchi Brumatti, Sabrina Alviti, Antonio Arnofi, Tommaso Bernardini, Maura Bin, Sonia Brescianini, Valentina Colelli, Rodolfo Cotichini, Martina Culasso, Paolo De Bartolo, Laura Felice, Valentina Fiano, Alessandra Fioritto, Alfio Frizzi…
    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2014 14:36

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