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  1. Toxoplasmosis resulting from infection with the Toxoplasma parasite has become an endemic disease worldwide. Recently, a few studies have reported a high prevalence of Toxoplasmosis infections among Saudi Arabian...

    Authors: Jamila S. Al Malki, Nahed Ahmed Hussien and Fuad Al Malki

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:133

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The gut microbiota and the brain are connected through different mechanisms. Bacterial colonisation of the gut plays a substantial role in normal brain development, providing opportunities for nutritional neur...

    Authors: Lisa M. Hortensius, Edith H. van den Hooven, Jeroen Dudink, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Ruurd M. van Elburg and Manon J. N. L. Benders

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:132

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. In lower resource settings, previous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated evidence of increased weight gain following antibiotic administration in children with acute illness. We conducted an individ...

    Authors: Ali Sié, Boubacar Coulibaly, Clarisse Dah, Mamadou Bountogo, Mamadou Ouattara, Guillaume Compaoré, Jessica M. Brogdon, William W. Godwin, Elodie Lebas, Thuy Doan, Benjamin F. Arnold, Travis C. Porco, Thomas M. Lietman and Catherine E. Oldenburg

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:130

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Identifying individual characteristics linked with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) can assist in designing health-enhancing interventions for children. We examined cross-sectional associations ...

    Authors: Marja H. Leppänen, Kaisa Kaseva, Riikka Pajulahti, Katri Sääksjärvi, Ella Mäkynen, Elina Engberg, Carola Ray, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Nina Sajaniemi and Eva Roos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:129

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Family meal participation is associated with healthier eating among children and adolescents. Less is known about family meal participation among infants and toddlers. The objective of the present study was to...

    Authors: Elisabet R. Hillesund, Linda R. Sagedal, Elling Bere and Nina C. Øverby

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:128

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Enterovirus (EV) is a common cause of infection in neonates. Neonates are at high risk of enterovirus infection with serious clinical manifestations and high lethality. This review systematically summarized th...

    Authors: Meng Zhang, Haoran Wang, Jun Tang, Yang He, Tao Xiong, Wenxing Li, Yi Qu and Dezhi Mu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:127

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic metabolic disorder in which patients have no ability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. Several autoimmune diseases have been reported to combine with PKU, co-existent of ...

    Authors: Ting Ting Zhu, Jin Wu, Li Yuan Wang and Xiao Mei Sun

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:126

    Content type: Case report

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  8. In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality is unacceptably high. Despite many efforts made by the government and other partners to reduce neonatal mortality; it has been increasing since 2014. Factors associated with neo...

    Authors: Addis Eyeberu, Hirpo Shore, Tamirat Getachew, Genanaw Atnafe and Merga Dheresa

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:125

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that result from a partial or complete failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis. Their prevalence varies between 0.5 to 2 per 1000 births...

    Authors: Khenata Forci, El Arbi Bouaiti, Mohamed Hassan Alami, Asmaa Mdaghri Alaoui and Amal Thimou Izgua

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:124

    Content type: Research article

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  10. With the increasing number of children with obesity worldwide, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease among children. It is necessary to recognize the risk factors of...

    Authors: Luting Peng, Su Wu, Nan Zhou, Shanliang Zhu, Qianqi Liu and Xiaonan Li

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:122

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Malignant melanoma (MM) arises predominantly after adolescence and is uncommon in children. Congenital MM in newborns is even rarer with a dearth of published literature; as a consequence, there is no uniform ...

    Authors: Jun Zhou, Meng-xing Lv, Ling Duan, Yu-cheng Xie, Zhi-xiang A, Hong-fang Wu and Yan Gao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:121

    Content type: Case report

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  12. To evaluate the long-term functional and structural pulmonary development in children with repaired congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to identify the associated perinatal-neonatal risk factors.

    Authors: June-Young Koh, Euiseok Jung, Hyun Woo Goo, Seong-Chul Kim, Dae Yeon Kim, Jung-Man Namgoong, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim and Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:120

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The Performance and Fitness (PERF-FIT) test battery for children is a recently developed, valid assessment tool for measuring motor skill-related physical fitness in 5 to 12-year-old children living in low-inc...

    Authors: Bouwien C. M. Smits-Engelsman, Eline Smit, Rosemary Xorlanyo Doe-Asinyo, Stella Elikplim Lawerteh, Wendy Aertssen, Gillian Ferguson and Dorothee L. Jelsma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Aspergillus infection is more common among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units, who have decreased qualitative immune defenses and need various invasive treatment procedures. It is rare in norma...

    Authors: Yanli Wang, Wenjing Chen, Wenshen Wu, Dongling Yu, Huiheng Yan and Xiuzhen Ye

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:118

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Aboriginal children living in Australian remote communities are at high risk of early and persistent otitis media, hearing loss, and social disadvantage. Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus infl...

    Authors: Amanda Jane Leach, Edward Kim Mulholland, Mathuram Santosham, Paul John Torzillo, Peter McIntyre, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Nicole Wilson, Beth Arrowsmith, Jemima Beissbarth, Mark D. Chatfield, Victor M. Oguoma and Peter Stanley Morris

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:117

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the architecture of the hip joint clearly and has been increasingly used in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) confirmation and follow-up. In this study, MRI was...

    Authors: Xianghong Meng, Jianping Yang and Zhi Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:115

    Content type: Research Article

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  17. Several studies have suggested that adverse neurodevelopment could be induced by systemic inflammation in preterm infants. We aimed to investigate whether preterm infants with systemic inflammation would have ...

    Authors: Eun Sun Lee, Ee-Kyung Kim, Seung han Shin, Young-Hun Choi, Young Hwa Jung, Sae Yun Kim, Ji Won Koh, Eui Kyung Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon and Han-Suk Kim

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:114

    Content type: Research Article

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  18. Bi-allelic mutations in FAM20C gene are known to cause a rare genetic disorder- Raine syndrome (RS). The FAM20C protein binds calcium and phosphorylates proteins involved in biomineralization of bones and teeth. ...

    Authors: Shruti Bajaj, Fazal Nabi, Jhanvi Shah and Harsh Sheth

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:113

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Living in a shelter is an adverse experience that generates toxic stress. This situation can cause the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and exert a negative impact on health.The aim of ...

    Authors: Adriana César da Silveira, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro Leite, Poliana Coelho Cabral, Ariclécio Cunha de Oliveira, Keciany Alves de Oliveira and Pedro Israel Cabral de Lira

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:112

    Content type: Research Article

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  20. Offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of neonatal complications like birth trauma due to macrosomia or postnatal hypoglycemia, as well as long-term metabolic sequ...

    Authors: Cornelia Wiechers, Lena S. Balles, Sara Kirchhof, Romy Weber, Vanessa Avellina, Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich, Manfred Hallschmid, Louise Fritsche, Hubert Preißl, Andreas Fritsche, Christian F. Poets and Axel R. Franz

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research Article

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  21. Difficulties related to eating are often reported in children born preterm. The objective of this study was to quantitatively synthesize available data on the prevalence of problematic feeding in children unde...

    Authors: Britt Frisk Pados, Rebecca R. Hill, Joy T. Yamasaki, Jonathan S. Litt and Christopher S. Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:110

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Fever in infants under 90 days of age is highly likely to be caused by a severe bacterial infection (SBI) and it accounts for a large number of patients visiting the pediatric emergency room. In order to predi...

    Authors: Jun-Sung Park, Young-Hoon Byun, Jeong-Yong Lee, Jong Seung Lee, Jeong-Min Ryu and Seung Jun Choi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:109

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The prevalence of monogenic diabetes is estimated to be 1.1–6.3% of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Europe. The overlapping clinical features of various forms of diabetes make differential diagnosis ch...

    Authors: Ja Hye Kim, Yena Lee, Yunha Choi, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo and Jin-Ho Choi

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:108

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The prophylactic use of anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibody (palivizumab) for severe RSV infection is not approved in Japan in specified groups of infants with neuromuscular diseases or other rare ...

    Authors: Masaaki Mori, Shinichi Watabe, Tomoaki Taguchi, Hisaya Hasegawa, Mika Ishige, Naoyuki Tanuma, Akihiro Hirakawa, Ryuji Koike and Satoshi Kusuda

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:106

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Posterior fossa brain tumors (PFBT) are the most common solid tumor in children. Recent increases in survival rates are encouraging; however, survivors may experience a plethora of disease- and treatment-relat...

    Authors: Brooke E. Kohler, Emmah Baque, Carolina X. Sandler, Denise S. K. Brookes, Caroline O. Terranova, Matthew Rixon, Tim Hassall and Stewart G. Trost

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:105

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Chorioamnionitis is associated with various neonatal short- and long-term morbidities. The effect of chorioamnionitis on premature children’s outcomes remains controversial. The aim of this study is to investi...

    Authors: Xiaoli Wang, Haiyuan Li, Qianqian Zhang, Qianwen Shen, Dan Zhu, Hong Li, Zheng Tang, Jiuru Zhao and Zhiwei Liu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:104

    Content type: Research Article

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  27. Backed by over 20 years of research development, the Wheelchair Skills Program (WSP) has proven to be a safe and effective program to improving wheelchair skills for adult wheelchair users. However, evidence i...

    Authors: Geneviève Daoust, Paula W. Rushton, Marissa Racine, Karolann Leduc, Najoua Assila and Louise Demers

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:103

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Defects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in proliferation and differentiation are involved in the pathophysiology of aplastic anemia (AA). Infusion of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-M...

    Authors: Yang Lan, Fang Liu, Lixian Chang, Lipeng Liu, Yingchi Zhang, Meihui Yi, Yuli Cai, Jing Feng, Zhibo Han, Zhongchao Han and Xiaofan Zhu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:102

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of IDH- wild type glioblastoma with both glial and mesenchymal differentiation. It accounts for approximately 2% of glioblastomas and has a poor prognosis similar to that of class...

    Authors: Nasir Ud Din, Hira Ishtiaq, Shabina Rahim, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar and Zubair Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:101

    Content type: Research Article

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  30. The question of whether to treat patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) early or wait until symptoms appear remains high on the research agenda for neonatal medicine. Around 7000 extremely preterm babies under 29 week...

    Authors: Samir Gupta, Edmund Juszczak, Pollyanna Hardy, Nimish Subhedar, Jonathan Wyllie, Wilf Kelsall, Sunil Sinha, Sam Johnson, Tracy Roberts, Elisabeth Hutchison, Justine Pepperell, Louise Linsell, Jennifer L. Bell, Kayleigh Stanbury, Marketa Laube, Clare Edwards…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:100

    Content type: Study protocol

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  31. We report data of a Belgian observational prospective cohort study regarding cognitive and behavioural development until the age of 36 months in relation to internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants [sum ...

    Authors: Griet Vermeir, Adrian Covaci, Nik Van Larebeke, Greet Schoeters, Vera Nelen, Gudrun Koppen and Mineke Viaene

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:99

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Organophosphates are one of the most common agents of poisoning in developing countries including Egypt. Due to lack of data about characteristics of organophosphates poisoning in our localities, we aimed to e...

    Authors: Khaled A. Abdel Baseer, Eman Fathala Gad and Yaser F. Abdel Raheem

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:98

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young athletes have become topical worldwide and unrecognized cardiac pathology has been identified as a leading cause. Black ethnicity has been reported ...

    Authors: Ogochukwu J. Sokunbi, Christy A. N. Okoromah, Ekanem N. Ekure, Olajide A. Olawale and Wuraola S. Eke

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:97

    Content type: Research article

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  34. The emerging of psychological problems triggered by COVID-19 particularly in children have been extensively highlighted and emphasized, but original research in this respect is still lagging behind. Therefore,...

    Authors: Zhongren Ma, Sakinah Idris, Yinxia Zhang, Liu Zewen, Amaad Wali, Yunpeng Ji, Qiuwei Pan and Zulqarnain Baloch

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:95

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dietary counseling can play an important role in managing child malnutrition but is often inadequate or absent. Moreover, little emphasis is given to the usefulness of local available foods in the rehabilitati...

    Authors: Andrea Pietravalle, Martina Scilipoti, Francesco Cavallin, Magda Lonardi, Ivo Makonga Tshikamb, Claudia Robbiati, Daniele Trevisanuto and Giovanni Putoto

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:94

    Content type: Research Article

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  36. Urticaria is common in pediatric population and is caused by various etiologies which usually differ among different age groups. The different etiologies require different management strategies. Thus, understa...

    Authors: Leelawadee Techasatian, Pariwat Phungoen, Jitjira Chaiyarit and Rattapon Uppala

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:92

    Content type: Research Article

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  37. In neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with intubation status, fluoroscopic evaluation for the bowel is limited. This study was to evaluate the utility of bedside upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series w...

    Authors: Choeum Kang, Haesung Yoon, Hyun Joo Shin, Ho Sun Eun, Kook In Park and Mi-Jung Lee

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:91

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Due to the lack of a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method, aetiological diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, MP) is a constantly challenging issue. This retrospective s...

    Authors: Mingyu Tang, Dong Wang, Xing Tong, Yufen Wu, Jing Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yong Yin and Qing Cao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:90

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Neonatal mortality contributes to nearly half of child deaths globally and the majority of these deaths are preventable. Poor quality of care is a major driver of neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income c...

    Authors: David Tuyisenge, Samuel Byiringiro, M. Louise Manirakiza, Robert G. Mutsinzi, Alphonse Nshimyiryo, Merab Nyishime, Lisa R. Hirschhorn, Francois Biziyaremye, Joseph Gitera, Kathryn Beck and Catherine M. Kirk

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:89

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Rotavirus is considered the main causal factor of severe gastroenteritis among infants and children globally. The association with severe rotavirus infection is mostly worse among the least developed countries...

    Authors: James Atampiiga Avoka, Elvis J. Dun-Dery, Issah Seidu, Armel N. E. Abou, Paul Twene, Isaac Obeng Tandoh and Frederick Dun-Dery

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:88

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cornell assessment of pediatric delirium (CAPD) showed advantage in diagnosis of pediatric delirium in Chinese critically ill patients. But its performance in surgical patients is still unclear. The present st...

    Authors: Hong Hong, Chao Guo, Zhi-Hua Liu, Bo-Jie Wang, Shu-Zhe Zhou, Dong-Liang Mu and Dong-Xin Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  42. During the second and third year after birth the gut microbiota (GM) is subjected to important development. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure could influence the GM in animal and early postnat...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Zhongqing Sun, Qian Zhang, Zhitao Sun, Ya Su, Jiahui Song, Bingling Wang and Ruqin Gao

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Until now, diabetes during pregnancy has been associated with a high risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidities and mortalities. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of hypoglycem...

    Authors: Ahlam M. Saber, Magdy A. Mohamed, Abdelrahim A. Sadek and Ramadan A. Mahmoud

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Moderately-late preterm (MLP) children (gestational age [GA] 32–36 weeks) are followed-up within community services, which often use developmental milestones as indicators of delay. We aimed to examine associa...

    Authors: Nienke H. van Dokkum, Sijmen A. Reijneveld, Arend F. Bos and Marlou L. A. de Kroon

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2021 21:84

    Content type: Research Article

    Published on:

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