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  1. Stunting, which describes a small height for one’s age, is an indicator of chronic malnutrition. It develops mainly as a result of prolonged food deprivation or a chronic disease or illness. Unintended pregnan...

    Authors: Mohammed Feyisso Shaka, Yetayal Birhanu Woldie, Hirbaye Mokona Lola, Kalkidan Yohannes Olkamo and Adane Tesfaye Anbasse

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:101

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare potentially fatal illness characterized by impaired natural killer and cytotoxic T cell function. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immune d...

    Authors: Ang Wei, Honghao Ma, Liping Zhang, Zhigang Li, Qing Zhang, Dong Wang, Li Zhang, Hongyun Lian, Rui Zhang and Tianyou Wang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:100

    Content type: Case report

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  3. Abacavir (ABC) and Zidovudine (AZT) based regimens are the preferred first line nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTIs) backbones being widely utilized for managing HIV infection in children. However, there i...

    Authors: Teshale Ayele Mega, Firehiwot Belayneh Usamo and Getandale Zeleke Negera

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:99

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Previous studies have reported that long-term use of valproic acid can cause changes in bone metabolism in children. We conducted this meta-analysis to determine the effects of valproic acid on bone metabolism...

    Authors: Li Min, Wang Chunyan and Rong Biaoxue

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:97

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity in adolescents is weight-loss surgery coupled with lifestyle behavior change. In preparation for weight-loss surgery, adolescents are required to make ...

    Authors: Elizabeth Prout Parks, Darra D. Finnerty, Jennifer Panganiban, Rosemary Frasso, Chanelle Bishop-Gilyard, Colleen M. Tewksbury, Noel N. Williams, Kristoffel R. Dumon, Gaby Cordero, Douglas L. Hill and David B. Sarwer

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:96

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To describe the incidence and management of gastrointestinal tract Buckyball magnets ingestions in a multicenter Chinese pediatric patient population, and discuss the preventive measures.

    Authors: Kai Wang, Dan Zhang, Xianling Li, Zengmeng Wang, Guangjun Hou, Xinjian Jia, Huizhong Niu, Shiqin Qi, Qingqiang Deng, Bin Jiang, Hongqiang Bian, Heying Yang and Yajun Chen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:95

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Non-invasive monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rcSO2) during transition is of growing interest. Different near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques have been developed to measure rcSO2. We compa...

    Authors: Tanja van Essen, Tom G. Goos, Liza van Ballegooijen, Gerhard Pichler, Berndt Urlesberger, Irwin K. M. Reiss and Rogier C. J. de Jonge

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:94

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Acute respiratory infection is manifested by cough accompanied by short rapid breathing which may be associated with death especially when there are other co-morbidities. From an estimated 5.4 million children...

    Authors: Henok Dagne, Zewudu Andualem, Baye Dagnew and Asefa Adimasu Taddese

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Following the publication of article by Cauble et al. [1], typographical errors were discovered. The Lingwood et al. and Deierlein et al. equations were listed incorrectly. To avoid confusion to the readers, t...

    Authors: Jennifer S. Cauble, Mira Dewi and Holly R. Hull

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:92

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in BMC Pediatrics 2017 17:88

  10. Diarrhea, particularly of enteric bacterial pathogen, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Despite the high prevalence of diarrheal disease among under-five children, antibiotic resist...

    Authors: Wagi Tosisa, Adane Mihret, Asnake Ararsa, Tadesse Eguale and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:91

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-threatening, autosomal-recessive disorder among Caucasians. To date, approximately 2000 mutations in the CFTR gene have been reported. Some of these mutations are ...

    Authors: Joanna Jaworska, Aleksandra Marach-Mocarska and Dorota Sands

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:90

    Content type: Case report

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  12. The extent and implications of muscle building protein supplement use among adolescents is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of protein powder, creatine, and anabolic steroid use ...

    Authors: Zali Yager and Siân McLean

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:89

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cow’s milk (CM) is the main food allergen for toddlers and infants. Presently, studies on CM specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) sensitization and positive distribution of CM components ALA-, CAS-, and BLG-sIgE a...

    Authors: Huimin Huang, Wenting Luo, Nili Wei, Xueqing Liang, Peiyan Zheng, Haisheng Hu and Baoqing Sun

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is an important complication of cardiac surgery. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The incidence of LCOS after surgery is high in patients with congeni...

    Authors: Xinwei Du, Hao Chen, Xiaoqi Song, Shunmin Wang, Zedong Hao, Lifeng Yin and Zhaohui Lu

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Prematurity is the leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age globally and is also frequently associated with postnatal growth failure (PGF). Although most preterm births occur in low resource...

    Authors: Clare Nakubulwa, Victor Musiime, Flavia B. Namiiro, James K Tumwine, Christine Hongella, James Nyonyintono, Anna B. Hedstrom and Robert Opoka

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Early Intervention (EI) is a federally mandated, state-administered system of care for children with developmental delays and disabilities under the age of three. Gaps exist in the process of accessing EI thro...

    Authors: Beth M. McManus, Zachary Richardson, Margaret Schenkman, Natalie J. Murphy, Rachel M. Everhart, Simon Hambidge and Elaine Morrato

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:84

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Lifelong healthy habits developed during childhood may prevent chronic diseases in adulthood. Interventions to promote these habits must begin early. The BONES (Beat Osteoporosis – Nourish and Exercise Skeleto...

    Authors: Christina D. Economos, Erin Hennessy, Kenneth Chui, Johanna Dwyer, Lori Marcotte, Aviva Must, Elena N. Naumova and Jeanne Goldberg

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:83

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Bleeding as an adverse event following immunization (AEFI) that is rarely reported in children, although it can be a parental concern. Bleeding episodes ranging in severity from mild to severe and defined as a...

    Authors: Susi Susanah, Eddy Fadlyana, Meita Dhamayanti, Rodman Tarigan, Eko Fuji Ariyanto, Yunisa Pamela, Yuzar I. B. Ismoetoto, Rita Verita Sri, Monika Hasna and Kusnandi Rusmil

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:82

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders steadily increases with the body mass index (BMI). Since the latter is not the best and earliest indicator of obesity and cardiovascular risk, ...

    Authors: Nataša Marčun Varda, Martina Medved and Laura Ojsteršek

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:81

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Young children’s healthy development depends on nurturing care, which ensures health, nutrition, responsive caregiving, safety and security, and early learning. Infancy and childhood are characterized by rapid...

    Authors: Claudia Pansieri, Antonio Clavenna, Chiara Pandolfini, Michele Zanetti, Maria Grazia Calati, Daniela Miglio, Massimo Cartabia, Federica Zanetto and Maurizio Bonati

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:80

    Content type: Study protocol

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  21. Urinary tract infection is one of the most common infectious diseases in children, which can lead to serious complications for a child. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Theory Planned...

    Authors: Zahra Ahmadi, Mohsen Shamsi, Nasrin Roozbahani and Rahmatollah Moradzadeh

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:79

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The term vascular anomalies include various vascular tumors and vascular malformations, among them infantile hemangiomas and capillary malformations are the most well-known associated diseases in early ages. M...

    Authors: Li Li, Bin Yang, Li Wei, Bin Zhang, Xiao-feng Han, Zi-gang Xu and Lin Ma

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:78

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Spinal epidural hematoma without significant trauma is a rare condition with potentially severe outcome. This case report and systematic review of the literature illustrates the clinical presentation, risk fac...

    Authors: Audrey Carlhan-Ledermann, Bernard Laubscher, Maja Steinlin, Christian T. Ulrich, Rajeev Kumar Verma, Mattia Rizzi, Rodolfo Maduri and Sebastian Grunt

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:77

    Content type: Case report

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  24. Ear (tympanostomy) tube (TT) placement is a common ambulatory surgery in children. Despite the commonality of this treatment, the long-term effects are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the...

    Authors: Jason A. Beyea, Bonnie Cooke, Emily Rosen and Paul Nguyen

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Clostridium perfringens forms part of the human gut microbiota and has been associated with life-threatening necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. Whether specific toxigenic strains are responsibl...

    Authors: Alexander G. Shaw, Emma Cornwell, Kathleen Sim, Hannah Thrower, Hannah Scott, Joseph C. S. Brown, Ronald A. Dixon and J. Simon Kroll

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:75

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Different charts are used to assess premature growth. The Fenton chart, based on prenatal growth, has been used in the neonates’ intensive care unit (NICU) of the Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital to ...

    Authors: Marie Samarani, Gianna Restom, Joelle Mardini, Georges Abi Fares, Souheil Hallit and Marie-Claude Fadous Khalife

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:74

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests, especially in asymptomatic children, is a common problem faced by clinicians. Isolated elevation of aspartate aminotransferase may further puzzle physic...

    Authors: Pejman Rohani, Farid Imanzadeh, Aliakbar Sayyari, Maryam Kazemi Aghdam and Reza Shiari

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:73

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Neonatal mortality remains a serious global public health problem, but Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), in particular, is largely affected. Current evidence on neonatal mortality is essential to inform programs and p...

    Authors: Animut Alebel, Fasil Wagnew, Pammla Petrucka, Cheru Tesema, Nurilign Abebe Moges, Daniel Bekele Ketema, lieltework Yismaw, Mamaru Wubale Melkamu, Yitbarek Tenaw Hibstie, Belisty Temesgen, Zebenay Workneh Bitew, Animen Ayehu Tadesse and Getiye Dejenu Kibret

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The number of children requiring long-term home ventilation has consistently increased over the last 25 years. Given the growing population of children with complex care needs (CCNs), this was an important are...

    Authors: Maria Brenner, Miriam P. O’Shea, Philip Larkin and Jay Berry

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  30. World Health Organisation (WHO) Guidelines on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep for Children under 5 Years of Age were released in 2019. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of Ch...

    Authors: Hongyan Guan, Zhiguang Zhang, Bo Wang, Anthony D. Okely, Meiling Tong, Jianxin Wu and Ting Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:70

    Content type: Research article

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  31. A key priority for learning during the early years of school is for children to develop skills in numeracy and literacy. Consequently, less time may be allocated in the curriculum to foster other important dev...

    Authors: Kirstin Macdonald, Nikki Milne, Robin Orr and Rodney Pope

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Diarrhoea, although easily curable, is a global cause of death for a half million children every year. Rotavirus and Campylobacter are the most common etiological agents of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years...

    Authors: Vishnu Bhattarai, Saroj Sharma, Komal Raj Rijal and Megha Raj Banjara

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The aim of this study was to review the effects of developmental care in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting on mental and motor development of preterm infants.

    Authors: Farin Soleimani, Nadia Azari, Hesam Ghiasvand, Amin Shahrokhi, Nahid Rahmani and Shiva Fatollahierad

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Speech sound disorder in childhood poses a barrier to academic and social participation, with potentially lifelong consequences for educational and occupational outcomes. While most speech errors resolve by th...

    Authors: Tara McAllister, Jonathan L. Preston, Elaine R. Hitchcock and Jennifer Hill

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:66

    Content type: Study protocol

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  35. The methodology currently used for nutritional assessment of populations classifies children according to four conditions: eutrophy, wasting, stunting, and overweight. However, children can be stunted and wast...

    Authors: Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:65

    Content type: Technical advance

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  36. The mid-long term outcomes of posterior spinal fusion in pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients are rarely reported, so does the effectiveness of itsorthopeidc maintenance function. This study aims...

    Authors: Siyi Cai, Zhengyao Li, Guixing Qiu, Jianxiong Shen, Hong Zhao, Yu Zhao, Yipeng Wang and Jianguo Zhang

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:63

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the highest relatively to the rest of the world. In the past decade, the policy on reducing infant mortality in SSA was reinforced and both i...

    Authors: Paul Gatabazi, Sileshi Fanta Melesse and Shaun Ramroop

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Metformin is widely used in pregnancy to treat gestational diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Association between PCOS and developmental delay in offspring, and larger head circumference o...

    Authors: Hanne Klæboe Greger, Liv Guro Engen Hanem, Heidi Furre Østgård and Eszter Vanky

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The first consensus standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulations were implemented in many neonatal units in Australia in 2012. The current update involving 49 units from Australia, New Zealand, Sing...

    Authors: Srinivas Bolisetty, David Osborn, Tim Schindler, John Sinn, Girish Deshpande, Chee Sing Wong, Susan E. Jacobs, Nilkant Phad, Pramod Pharande, Rodney Tobiansky, Melissa Luig, Amit Trivedi, Joanne Mcintosh, Eszter Josza, Gillian Opie, Lyn Downe…

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:59

    Content type: Correspondence

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  40. Prechoolers’ significant portions of sedentary time (ST) is a public-health concern due to its high prevalence and negative health consequences. However, few studies have explored correlates of preschoolers’ S...

    Authors: Suvi Määttä, Hanna Konttinen, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira Figueiredo, Ari Haukkala, Nina Sajaniemi, Maijaliisa Erkkola and Eva Roos

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:58

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Only a few small studies have previously reported episodes of hypoglycemia in children with neuromuscular diseases; however, there has been no broader investigation into the occurrence of hypoglycemia in child...

    Authors: Leslie H. Hayes, Pomi Yun, Payam Mohassel, Gina Norato, Sandra Donkervoort, Meganne E. Leach, Rachel Alvarez, Anne Rutkowski, Natalie D. Shaw, A. Reghan Foley and Carsten G. Bönnemann

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Prompt initiation of empiric therapy is common practice in case of suspected meningitis or encephalitis. However, in children the most common pathogens are viruses that usually do not require and are not cover...

    Authors: Alexandra Hagen, Anna Eichinger, Melanie Meyer-Buehn, Tilmann Schober and Johannes Huebner

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Neonatal sepsis is an invasive infection, usually bacterial, and often occurring during the neonatal period (0–28 days). Neonatal sepsis causes a high burden of morbidity and mortality in developing countries ...

    Authors: Amare Belachew and Tilahun Tewabe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the ear following ear piercing is a very rare condition. It is easily misdiagnosed leading to reconstructive morbidities and mortality in neonates. High clinical suspicion ...

    Authors: U. U. Nnadozie, O. B. Ezeanosike, C. C. Maduba, D. C. Obu and U. S. D. Unigwe

    Citation: BMC Pediatrics 2020 20:54

    Content type: Case report

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