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Table 3a Association between child diarrhoea and risk factors (Adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals)

From: Housing and health outcomes: evidence on child morbidities from six Sub-Saharan African countries

Terms

Ghana (2014)

Burkina Faso (2010)

Cameroon (2011)

Kenya (2014)

Nigeria (2018)

South Africa (2016)

(Intercept)

0.13(0.03, 0.47)

0.19(0.07,0.53)

0.39(0.17,0.92)

0.31(0.18,0.55)

0.19(0.11,0.33)

0.22(0.02, 2.76)

Healthy housing status(ref: Unhealthier)

     

Healthier

1.21(0.66, 2.20)

1.24(0.92,1.66)

0.50(0.35,0.70)

0.79(0.63,0.98)

0.61(0.50,0.74)

0.37(0.09, 1.54)

Healthiest

0.95(0.50, 1.81)

1.34(0.82,2.18)

0.48(0.32,0.71)

0.68(0.52,0.87)

0.48(0.37,0.62)

0.59(0.21, 1.61)

Healthy

0.96(0.58, 1.58)

1.21(0.90,1.64)

0.60(0.44,0.83)

0.76(0.62,0.91)

0.71(0.59,0.86)

0.41(0.18, 0.97)

Unhealthy

1.43(0.94, 2.17)

1.02(0.77,1.35)

0.60(0.44,0.81)

0.84(0.70,1.02)

0.78(0.67,0.91)

1.40(0.72, 2.71)

Household head age (Ref: 0-24years)

     

25–34 years

1.27(0.65, 2.47)

0.89(0.59,1.33)

1.55(0.93,2.60)

0.93(0.73,1.18)

0.89(0.68,1.16)

0.86(0.27, 2.81)

35–49 years

1.22(0.60, 2.48)

0.71(0.47,1.08)

1.31(0.78,2.21)

0.85(0.67,1.08)

0.83(0.64,1.09)

0.54(0.13, 2.18)

50 + years

1.22(0.54, 2.74)

0.85(0.54,1.33)

1.69(0.98,2.90)

0.81(0.63,1.05)

0.83(0.62,1.12)

0.67(0.16, 2.71)

Breastfeeding status (Ref: Ever breastfed)

     

Never breastfed

1.00(0.20, 5.13)

2.10(1.09,4.05)

    

Still breastfeeding

1.18(0.72, 1.94)

1.22(0.93,1.61)

    

Mother’s Education level (Ref: No education)

     

Higher

0.32(0.09, 1.12)

1.04(0.19,5.59)

0.38(0.20,0.75)

0.68(0.48,0.96)

0.79(0.61,1.04)

0.79(0.19, 3.33)

Primary

0.89(0.58, 1.37)

1.23(0.96,1.58)

0.67(0.54,0.83)

1.33(1.09,1.63)

1.11(0.94,1.30)

0.54(0.13, 2.34)

Secondary

0.77(0.53, 1.11)

0.95(0.63,1.44)

0.48(0.35,0.66)

1.28(1.01,1.62)

1.03(0.87,1.20)

0.50(0.15, 1.66)

Residence (Ref: Rural)

     

Urban

1.03(0.69, 1.54)

0.89(0.62,1.26)

1.18(0.90,1.56)

1.15(0.97,1.36)

0.91(0.77,1.08)

0.99(0.53, 1.86)

Head of HH (Ref: Female)

     

Male

0.98(0.65, 1.48)

1.15(0.84,1.57)

1.15(0.88,1.51)

0.99(0.87,1.13)

1.06(0.88,1.28)

1.43(0.85, 2.40)

Mother’s BMI (Ref: Underweight)

     

Normal

1.28(0.65, 2.49)

0.83(0.67,1.03)

0.57(0.41,0.80)

0.78(0.59,1.04)

 

1.25(0.26, 6.05)

Obese

3.46(0.56,21.40)

0.57(0.24,1.32)

0.40(0.19,0.83)

0.60(0.29,1.24)

 

1.64(0.26,10.35)

Overweight

1.04(0.29, 3.71)

0.70(0.34,1.42)

0.43(0.27,0.69)

0.71(0.48,1.06)

 

1.83(0.35, 9.48)

Child age (Ref: below 1 year)

     

1 year

2.40(1.60, 3.61)

1.76(1.42,2.18)

2.46(1.89,3.21)

1.26(1.08,1.46)

1.52(1.36,1.70)

1.36(0.69, 2.66)

2 years

2.59(1.43, 4.70)

1.55(1.14,2.12)

1.31(0.94,1.81)

0.76(0.65,0.88)

0.97(0.85,1.09)

0.47(0.23, 0.95)

3 years

0.78(0.36, 1.72)

0.84(0.57,1.23)

0.85(0.64,1.13)

0.41(0.34,0.49)

0.55(0.48,0.63)

0.55(0.22, 1.38)

4 years

1.02(0.49, 2.12)

0.44(0.29,0.67)

0.52(0.36,0.74)

0.29(0.24,0.36)

0.42(0.36,0.48)

0.47(0.22, 1.00)

Child sex (Ref: Male)

     

Female

0.67(0.51, 0.89)

0.95(0.82,1.11)

0.93(0.80,1.09)

0.88(0.79,0.98)

1.02(0.94,1.10)

0.74(0.45, 1.22)

Multiple births(Ref: Yes)

     

No

0.71(0.35, 1.44)

1.27(0.71,2.25)

0.94(0.61,1.45)

1.03(0.70,1.53)

1.00(0.75,1.33)

1.74(0.46, 6.56)

Mother’s marital status (Ref: never married)

     

Married

0.55(0.29, 1.04)

0.70(0.37,1.33)

1.53(0.98,2.37)

1.16(0.91,1.49)

0.81(0.54,1.24)

0.84(0.40, 1.74)

Others

0.67(0.36, 1.25)

1.21(0.59,2.47)

1.75(1.12,2.73)

1.61(1.24,2.09)

0.87(0.57,1.33)

1.61(0.86, 3.00)

Mother’s age (Ref: 15–24 years)

     

25–34 years

1.06(0.76, 1.50)

0.94(0.76,1.16)

0.84(0.64,1.09)

0.90(0.77,1.05)

0.97(0.87,1.09)

1.25(0.67, 2.34)

35–49 years

1.54(0.72, 3.28)

0.92(0.54,1.55)

0.71(0.38,1.30)

0.98(0.67,1.44)

1.05(0.80,1.37)

0.77(0.08, 7.33)

Mother’s religion (Ref: Christian)

     

Muslim

1.90(1.36, 2.66)

1.09(0.91,1.30)

1.16(0.93,1.44)

0.93(0.74,1.18)

2.16(1.89,2.48)

 

No religion

0.84(0.38, 1.88)

0.19(0.03,1.09)

0.85(0.51,1.41)

1.54(1.17,2.02)

  

Traditional/other

0.92(0.33, 2.55)

1.06(0.75,1.51)

0.91(0.61,1.37)

0.89(0.38,2.08)

0.46(0.19,1.11)