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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of inpatient pediatric gastrointestinal surgical patients in the United States in 2016

From: Postoperative complications after gastrointestinal pediatric surgical procedures: outcomes and socio-demographic risk factors

Variable Total (n = 66,157) No Complication (n = 64,148) Complication (n = 2,009)
Procedure    
  Appendectomy 50,947 (77.0) 49,290 (96.7) 1,657 (3.3)
  Cholecystectomy 9,796 (14.8) 9,561 (97.6) 235 (2.4)
  Colonic Resection 333 (0.5) 297 (89.2) 36 (10.8)
  Pyloromyotomy 4,574 (6.9) 4,546 (99.4) 28 (0.6)
  Small Bowel Resection 254 (0.4) 228 (89.8) 26 (10.2)
  Combination of 2 Procedures -- -- --
  Combination of 3 Procedures -- -- --
Age in Years mean (SD) 12.2 (5.8) 12.1 (5.8) 12.1 (5.6)
Age Group    
  < 1 month 1,694 (2.6) 1,669 (98.5) 25 (1.5)
  1–24 months 3,544 (5.4) 3,486 (98.4) 58 (1.6)
  2–12 years 27,239 (41.2) 26,312 (96.6) 928 (3.4)
  >12 years 33,679 (50.9) 32,681 (97.0) 998 (3.0)
Sex    
  Male 36,172 (54.7) 34,896 (96.5) 1,276 (3.5)
  Female 29,980 (45.3) 29,249 (97.6) 731 (2.4)
Race    
  White 28,619 (46.3) 27,758 (97.0) 860 (3.0)
  Black 4,794 (7.7) 4,606 (96.1) 188 (3.9)
  Hispanic 22,807 (36.9) 22,189 (97.3) 619 (2.7)
  Asian/Pacific Islander 1,729 (2.8) 1,679 (97.1) 50 (2.9)
  Native American 588 (1.0) 554 (94.3) 34 (5.7)
  Other 3,338 (5.4) 3,225 (96.6) 113 (3.4)
Insurance Status    
  Medicare 161 (0.2) -- --
  Medicaid 33,729 (51.0) 32,740 (97.1) 989 (2.9)
  Private Insurance 26,916 (40.7) 26,092 (96.9) 824 (3.1)
  Self-pay 3,209 (4.9) 3,105 (96.8) 104 (3.2)
  No Charge 149 (0.2) -- --
  Other 1,916 (2.9) 1,844 (96.2) 72 (3.8)
Median Income for ZIP Code    
  First Quartile 20,238 (31.0) 19,628 (97.0) 610 (3.0)
  Second Quartile 16,243 (24.9) 15,706 (96.7) 536 (3.3)
  Third Quartile 15,829 (24.2) 15,339 (96.9) 490 (3.1)
  Fourth Quartile 13,003 (19.9) 12,655 (97.3) 348 (2.7)
Geographic Region of Hospital    
  Northeast 11,245 (17.0) 10,965 (97.5) 280 (2.5)
  Midwest 10,568 (16.0) 10,175 (96.3) 393 (3.7)
  South 23,308 (35.2) 22,525 (96.6) 784 (3.4)
  West 21,036 (31.8) 20,484 (97.4) 552 (2.6)
Hospital Location and Teaching Status   
  Rural 4,265 (6.4) 4,086 (95.8) 179 (4.2)
  Urban Nonteaching 13,236 (20.0) 12,813 (96.8) 423 (3.2)
  Urban teaching 48,656 (73.5) 47,249 (97.1) 1,406 (2.9)
Hospital Size    
  Small (1 to 99 beds) 8,706 (13.2) 8,410 (96.6) 296 (3.4)
  Medium (100 to 399 beds) 15,818 (23.9) 15,361 (97.1) 457 (2.9)
  Large (≥ 400 beds) 41,633 (62.9) 40,377 (97.0) 1,256 (3.0)
Admission Modality    
  Non-elective 61,336 (93.0) 59,532 (97.1) 1,804 (2.9)
  Elective 4,635 (7.0) 4,433 (95.6) 202 (4.4)
Admission Day    
  Weekday 49,401 (74.7) 47,884 (96.9) 1,517 (3.1)
  Weekend 16,756 (25.3) 16,264 (97.1) 492 (2.9)
Admission Season    
  Winter 16,473 (24.9) 15,982 (97.0) 491 (3.0)
  Spring 16,645 (25.2) 16,135 (96.9) 510 (3.1)
  Summer 17,437 (26.4) 16,890 (96.9) 547 (3.1)
  Fall 15,599 (23.6) 15,138 (97.0) 460 (3.0)
Perforation    
  No 42,618 (64.4) 41,868 (98.2) 750 (1.8)
  Yes 23,539 (35.6) 22,281 (94.7) 1,258 (5.3)
Gestational Age    
  Extremely Immature < 28 Weeks 18 (0.0) -- --
  Immature 28–37 Weeks 64 (0.1) -- --
  Post-term > 42 Weeks -- -- --
  Body Mass Index    
  < 5th Percentile for Age 62 (0.1) -- --
  5th − 85th Percentile for Age 174 (0.3) 163 (93.7) 11 (6.3)
  85th − 95th Percentile for Age 159 (0.2) -- --
  ≥ 95th Percentile for Age 778 (1.2) 748 (96.1) 30 (3.9)
  Not available 64,982 (98.2) 63,022 (97.0) 1,961 (3.0)
  1. Column 1 represents column/block based %s; Column 2 and 3 contain row based frequencies and %s. Frequencies that are < 11 and related frequencies were not reported based on HCUP policy