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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Child transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Article Number of index patients Child-to-child transmission Child-to-adult transmission Country Setting
Positive PCR Symptomatic; unconfirmed PCR Asymptomatic or negative PCR Positive PCR Symptomatic; unconfirmed PCR Asymptomatic or negative PCR
Posfay-Barbe et al. 2020 39 0 6 13 2 11 11 Switzerland Household
Laws et al. 2021 12 1 0 15 2 0 17 USA Household
Lopez et al. 2020 4 1 2 -- 7 2 -- USA Household
Macartney et al. 2020 12 2 -- 196 1 -- 101 Australia Childcare
Yoon et al. 2021 1 0 1 153 0 1 35 South Korea Childcare
Ehrhardt et al. 2020a 6 11 -- -- -- -- -- Germany Childcare
Heavey et al. 2020 3 0 0 895 0 0 94 Ireland School
Kim et al. 2021b 1 1 -- -- -- -- 2 South Korea Household
Drezner et al. 2020c 1 0 0 10 -- -- -- USA Soccer
Gharekhanloo, Sedighi, and Khazaei 2020 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Iran Household
Wong et al. 2020d 1 0 0   1 0   South East Asia School
Schwartz et al. 2020e 1 0 3 4 6 2 4 USA Family gathering
Pray et al. 2020 1 1 6 5 -- -- -- USA School Retreat
Fong et al. 2020 2 3 -- -- 3 -- -- Hong Kong Household
Pitman-Hunt et al. 2021f 2 1 -- -- 0 -- -- USA Household
Teherani et al. 2020 7 4 0 6 10 0 10 USA Household
Okarska-Napierala, Mańdziuk, and Kuchar 2021 7 3 1 -- 9 0 -- Poland Nursery
Maltezou et al. 2020g 61 1 -- -- 1 4 -- Greece Household
Heudorf, Steul, and Gottschalk 2020 3 2 -- -- 1 -- -- Germany Household
Ji et al. 2020 2 1 -- -- 4 -- -- China Household
Lin et al. 2020h 2 0 0 1 1 0 3 China Household
Yung et al. 2021 2 0 42 -- -- -- -- Singapore School
Buonsenso, Danilo, and Graglia 2021 2 9 0 0 -- -- -- Italy School
Cesilia et al. 2021 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 Indonesia Household
Gillespie et al. 2021i 1 3 -- -- 0 -- -- USA Household and School
Shah, Kondre and Mavalankar 2021j 72 0 -- -- 2 -- -- India Household
Siegel et al. 2021k 1 12 -- -- 2 -- -- USA School
Brandal et al. 2021 13 2 -- -- 1 -- -- Norway School
Dawson et al. 2021l 1 1 -- -- 0 -- -- USA School
Lin et al. 2021 1 -- -- -- 3 -- -- China Household
Fiel-Ozores et al. 2021 1 -- -- -- 1 -- -- Spain Household
Gupta et al. 2021m 19 0 -- 6 7 -- 50 India Household
Hershow et al. 2021n 40 4 -- -- 1 -- -- USA School
Gold et al. 2021o 1 2 -- -- -- -- -- USA School
Soriano-Arandes et al. 2021 80 60 -- -- 107 -- -- Spain Household
Jordan et al. 2021 30 11 -- -- 1 -- -- Spain School
Abbas and Tornhage 2021 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 Sweden Household
Lewis et al. 2021 1 1 -- -- 2 -- -- USA Household
Ismail et al. 2021 21 6 -- -- 33 -- -- UK School
Danis et al. 2020p 1 -- -- -- -- -- -- France School
  1. a: Transmission only reported on 6 of 137 index patients
  2. b: Transmission only reported on 1 of 107 index patients
  3. c: Transmission only reported on 1 of 2 index patients; other index patient self-isolated and had no contacts
  4. d: total of 29 child and adult patients who were exposed but asymptomatic
  5. e: index patient tested “negative” but likely testing error
  6. f: reported household positive cases were excluded as pattern of transmission was not specified
  7. g: concomitant COVID infections of 2 siblings but one tested first and was used as the index patient
  8. h: Neonatal transmission was excluded. Child testing positive was asymptomatic.
  9. i: School A was not included as index patient’s age was unknown
  10. j: Study also reports 3 total positive secondary cases (age unknown) out of 278 total contacts
  11. k: Total of 16 cases (unknown age) out of 320 contacts
  12. l: Total of 1 case out of 102 tested contacts
  13. m: Total of 9 cases (unknown age) out of 122 contacts
  14. n: Data of tertiary transmission was excluded as secondary index patients were not specified
  15. o: Other transmission clusters excluded as index patient was not specified
  16. p: Total of 1 case (unknown age) out of 172 contact