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Table 3 Infant feeding practice, COVID impacts, and relevant feeding supports of subjects, according to whether they delivered before or during the lockdown

From: The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternal delivery experiences and breastfeeding practices in China: data from a cross-sectional study

N (%) N (%) Before During Total P value
(N = 1231) (N = 576) (N = 1807)
Feeding intention before delivery 1800 (99.6)     
 Exclusive breastfeeding   1014 (82.8) 485 (84.2) 1499 (83.3) 0.660
 Formula feeding   31 (2.5) 13 (2.3) 44 (2.4)  
 Mixed feeding   120 (9.8) 47 (8.2) 167 (9.3)  
 No plans   59 (4.8) 31 (5.4) 90 (5)  
Infant feeding at 6-month 1800 (99.6)     
 Mostly breastfeeding   746 (60.9) 392 (68.1) 1138 (63.2) 0.014
 Formula feeding   79 (6.5) 32 (5.6) 111 (6.2)  
 Mixed feeding   399 (32.6) 152 (26.4) 551 (30.6)  
Change in feeding intention and actual feeding for 6 month 1806 (99.9)     0.013
 Yes, change   366 (29.8) 139 (24.1) 505 (28)  
 No change   864 (70.2) 437 (75.9) 1301 (72)  
Current infant feeding 1806 (99.9)     
 Mostly breastfeeding   88 (7.2) 210 (36.5) 298 (16.5) 0.000
 Breastfeeding + solids   397 (32.3) 150 (26) 547 (30.3)  
 Formula feeding   38 (3.1) 15 (2.6) 53 (2.9)  
 Formula feeding plus solid   261 (21.2) 43 (7.5) 304 (16.8)  
 Mixed milk feeding   44 (3.6) 42 (7.3) 86 (4.8)  
 Mixed feeding plus solids   402 (32.7) 116 (20.1) 518 (28.7)  
COVID impact on original infant feeding 1796 (99.4)     
 Great   66 (5.4) 30 (5.3) 96 (5.3) 0.036
 Moderate   230 (18.8) 140 (24.5) 370 (20.6)  
 Little   246 (20.1) 115 (20.1) 361 (20.1)  
 No   683 (55.8) 286 (50.1) 969 (54)  
Received enough help with BF from professionals 1804 (99.8)     
 Yes   1170 (95.3) 557 (96.7) 1727 (95.7) 0.163
 No   58 (4.7) 19 (3.3) 77 (4.3)  
Received enough help with BF from family 1804 (99.8)     
 Yes   1164 (94.8) 553 (96) 1717 (95.2) 0.260
 No   64 (5.2) 23 (4) 87 (4.8)  
Enough support with own health 1693 (93.7)     
 Yes   1048 (90.5) 488 (91.2) 1536 (90.7) 0.638
 No   110 (9.5) 47 (8.8) 157 (9.3)  
Contact with a health professional (per week) 1783 (98.7)     
 Never   756 (62.3) 347 (61) 1103 (61.9) 0.010
 1–3 times   371 (30.6) 166 (29.2) 537 (30.1)  
 4–5 times   29 (2.4) 31 (5.4) 60 (3.4)  
 Daily or more   58 (4.8) 25 (4.4) 83 (4.7)  
Chat in a breastfeeding support group (per week) 1785 (98.8)     
 Never   539 (44.4) 228 (40) 767 (43) 0.081
 1–3 times   476 (39.2) 231 (40.5) 707 (39.6)  
 4–5 times   93 (7.7) 41 (7.2) 134 (7.5)  
 Daily or more   107 (8.8) 70 (12.3) 177 (9.9)  
Who supports infant feeding? (multiple choices allowed)
 Partner 1791 (99.1) 774 (63.5) 392 (68.5) 1166 (65.1) 0.037
 Parent 1791 (99.1) 691 (56.7) 301 (52.6) 992 (55.4) 0.107
 Parent In-laws 1791 (99.1) 557 (45.7) 260 (45.5) 817 (45.6) 0.925
 Health professional 1791 (99.1) 551 (45.2) 207 (36.2) 758 (42.3) 0.000
 Friend/relative 1791 (99.1) 356 (29.2) 125 (21.9) 481 (26.9) 0.001
 Breastfeeding group 1791 (99.1) 386 (31.7) 164 (28.7) 550 (30.7) 0.200
 Online support 1791 (99.1) 243 (19.9) 82 (14.3) 325 (18.1) 0.004
 Other 1791 (99.1) 14 (1.1) 2 (0.3) 16 (0.9) 0.094
 No support 1791 (99.1) 39 (3.2) 7 (1.2) 46 (2.6) 0.014
  1. Notes: * P < 0.05. For multiple choices question, we compared each choice for DL & BL using the Chi-square. For single choice question we used the Chi-square and Mann-Whitney test for all categories