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Table 1 Full Study Details

From: Melatonin for pre-medication in children: a systematic review

First author Year Country n Surgery / procedure Age (years) M:F Anxious children Anaesthesia Melatonin dose Melatonin formulation Trade Name Manufacturer Preparation Administration timing Comparator(s)
Almenrader 2013 Italy 87 Not specified 1 - 5 77:10 No GA 0.3 mg/kg 6mg/ml Melamil® Milte Italia SpA, Italy Not specified 60 min prior to surgery Clonidine 4μg/kg
Ansari 2018 Iran 23 Dental surgery 2 - 6 17:6 Yes Sedation 0.5 mg/kg Not specified Not specified Vitane Pharmaceuticals, USA Dissolved in sweetened water 30 minutes prior to IV sedation Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg
Faghihian 2018 Iran 132 Dental surgery 3 - 6 55:77 Yes GA 0.5 mg/kg 15 ml Melatonin tablets 3mg Aristo pharmaceutical company, India Dissolved in water 40 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg; Placebo (15 ml dextrose and saline)
Gitto 2016 Italy 92 Elective surgery 5 - 14 62:30 No GA 0.5 mg/kg (max 20 mg) Not specified Melamil® oral drops Milte Italia SpA, Italy Dissolved in 5 ml water 40 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (max 20 mg)
Impellizzeri 2017 Italy 80 Elective surgery 8 - 14 64:16 No GA 0.5 mg/kg (max 20 mg) Not specified Melamil® oral drops Milte Italia SpA, Italy Dissolved in 5 ml water 40 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg (max 20 mg)
Isik 2008 Turkey 60 Dental surgery 3 - 8 31:29 Yes Sedation 3mg; 0.5 mg/kg Not specified Melatonina® tablets (3mg) Katowice, Poland Dissolved in 3–10 ml water 60 min prior to N2O/O2 sedation Midazolam 15mg/3ml; Placebo (saline)
Kain 2009 USA 148 Elective surgery 2 - 8 82:66 No GA 0.05; 0.2; 0.4 mg/kg Not specified Not specified Sigma Chemical, USA Prepared in an investigational pharmacy 45 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg
Khalifa 2013 Egypt 120 Adenotonsillectomy 3 - 6 64:56 No GA 0.1 mg/kg Not specified Not specified Not specified One tablet (5mg) dissolved in 10 ml glucose 5%. The calculated dose added with 15mg/kg oral paracetamol 60 min prior to induction Ketamine 0.5 mg/kg; Melatonin 0.05 mg/kg with Ketamine 0.25 mg/kg; Placebo (saline)
Kurdi 2016 India 100 Elective surgery 5 - 15 51:49 No LA and GA 0.5; 0.75 mg/kg 3mg/ml Not specified Life extension pharmaceuticals, Lauderdale, obtained online Commercially available MT syrup (no preparation) 60 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg; Placebo (multivitamin syrup)
Ozcengiz 2011 Turkey 100 Esophageal dilatation procedures 3 - 9 50:50 No GA 0.1 mg/kg Not specified Not specified Not specified Given with 2–2.5 mg/kg oral paracetamol 40–45 min prior to induction Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg; Dexmedetomidine 2.5 μg/kg; Placebo (saline)
Samarkandi 2005 USA 105 Inguinal hernia, undescended testis, hydrocoele and hypospadias 2 - 5 73:32 No GA 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 mg/kg Not specified Not specified General Nutrition Corporation, USA Mixed in 15mg/kg oral paracetamol 45 min prior to induction Midazolam (0.1; 0.25; 0.5 mg/kg); Placebo (acetaminophen)