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Table 1 Message components, and outcome measures with associated items

From: An informed approach to the development of primary care pediatric firearm safety messages

Message component

Video stated:


“There are some safety issues I want to get on your radar, so you can keep your home and places your child visits as safe as possible.”


“People have different needs when it comes to firearm storage, and it really isn’t one size fits all. In any home your child spends time in, guns should be inaccessible to curious kids. One of the best ways for firearm owners to do this is to lock up guns and ammunition separate from each other. For folks who keep guns for self-defense and want a loaded gun ready at a moment’s notice, a biometric safe is the next safest option. These safes open with a unique wristband, ring, sticker, or fingerprint.”

Core contextual message

Video stated:

Absence of harm

“Some people believe that the way they store their guns works because an accident hasn’t happened yet. That is great, but we want to make sure an accident never happens, so let’s review the best practices.”

Collective appeal to understanding child’s behavior

“Whether or not you have firearms, it’s important to make sure your kid is safe in other people’s homes and cars, including friends and family members. It’s OK to say: ‘My kid is curious. I just want to make sure that any firearms are secured.’”

Pediatrician’s authority

“I respect the family traditions of owning guns in America. As your child’s pediatrician, I am your partner in securing a healthy future for your child. This means we need to talk about firearm safety measures wherever your child spends time.”


“About 19 American kids a day are injured or killed by guns. It’s an alarming number. Let’s make sure your child is protected from being one of those 19 kids with safe firearm storage.”

Fear appeal

“Gun safety is a health issue, even though people don’t often talk about it that way. If being shot does not kill a child, it can lead to a host of other serious health problems. Let’s talk about how to make places your kid spends time healthy and safe in terms of gun storage.”


“There are many areas of safety that we need to address to keep your child safe and healthy — those include water safety, bike safety, fire safety, and gun safety.”



Message effectiveness

This video was convincing

This video said something important to me

Watching this video helped me to feel confident about how to deal with gun safety issues

Overall, how much did you agree or disagree with what this video said?

The information in this video is believable to me

Negative emotion

This video made me feel irritated

This video made me feel angry

This video made me feel annoyed

Negative cognition

I felt this video was unreasonable

I felt this video was unfair

I felt this video was exaggerated


This video was effective at providing advice for keeping kids safe from firearm risks

This video made me believe that I can keep kids safe from firearm risks

Behavioral intentions

After viewing this video, how likely is it that in the next 3 months, you will:

Follow firearm safe storage advice provided in this video?

Talk with friends or family about keeping kids safe from firearms risks?

Talk to your child’s health care provider about firearm safety?

Remove firearms from your home, even on a temporary basis?

Remove firearms from your car (s), even on a temporary basis?