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Table 2 Grandi Byen parenting intervention modules

From: Grandi Byen—supporting child growth and development through integrated, responsive parenting, nutrition and hygiene: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

No Title Session summary/empirical support Targeted mechanism
1 Parenting for strong, healthy children Parental aspirations; challenges encountered; introduces mothers to five principles of healthy parenting covered in Grandi Byen: hygiene, food, play, conversation, self-care. All 5 are reinforced in every session. Responsive parenting
2 Strong, healthy families 1 Common family stressors that can impact child development and ways to address them. Need for positive home environment to help young children to thrive; strategies to build positive mother-infant interactions. Responsive parenting
3 Taking care of yourself Mothers are taught to identify and link their emotions and behaviors. Positive strategies to deal with negative emotions are introduced.  
4 Creating a stimulating environment for healthy development Why young children need to play with objects in order to grow and learn; age-appropriate, readily available stimulating toys; mother-infant engagement Responsive parenting
5 Talking and playing with children New ways of talking to babies and why necessary; practice interacting with their child both verbally and non-verbally. Responsive parenting
6 Animal source foods and diverse diets What to feed and how much to feed infants/young children; continued breastfeeding; importance of diverse diets for young children, and why ASFs are critical in complementary feeding. Nutritiona
7 Don’t forget the soap Use of latrines and soap. Identifying barriers to handwashing and latrine use and how to overcome them. WASHa
8 Positive family relationships Strategies for positive communication and problem-solving skills for interpersonal conflict.  
9 Make play more challenging Discusses why children need novelty and challenges. Identifies ways to make play more challenging. Identifies barriers to collecting new play things and strategies to overcome them. Responsive parenting
10 Engaging with your children Story-telling and other engaging activities (singing and dancing) are modeled by the facilitator and then practiced by mothers with their infants. Responsive parenting
11 Strong, healthy families 2 This session builds upon earlier sessions focused on communication and family relationships and discusses ways to engage children’s father in play with their children. Mothers identify their own communication style and identity pros and cons of their style.  
12 Review session   
  1. aAlthough only the primary focus of one session each, the importance of ASF and hygiene and sanitation will be reinforced weekly