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Table 1 Studies investigating the association between FFM/LBM and IR in children and adolescents

From: Fat-free/lean body mass in children with insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Study design Population n (♀;♂) Age Country Study period Method to assess maturation stage Method to assess body composition Metabolic variables IR criteria Body composition outcome by IR Association: body composition– IR Secondary outcomes
Non IR
mean ± SD
IR
mean ± SD
Burrows et al. [30] CS 667 adolescents (♀ 47.8%; ♂ 52.2%) 16.8 ± 0.3 Chile NA NA DXA Fasting glucose; TG; HDL-C; WC; BP; adiponectin; hs-CRP. HOMA-IR (n = 558) (n = 109) Adolescents with IR had significantly lower (p < 0.001) mean values of LM (%). Independently significant association between IR and sarcopenia (OR: 4.9; 95% CI: 3.2–7.5)
LM (%)
68.7 ± 11.4
LM (%)
62.0 ± 9.4
Sanches et al. [29] CT 66 post-pubertal adolescents with obesity. 16.8 ± 1.6 Brazil Tanner V 100% Tanner stages Air-displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD) LDL-C; HDL-C; VLDL; HOMA-IR; QUICKI; MBP; leptin; adiponectin; Leptin/Adiponectin ratio and resistin. HOMA-IR; QUICKI (n = 27) (n = 39) No significant difference between groups with IR and non-IR.  
LBM (%)
52.62 ± 5.77
LBM (%)
52.42 ± 5.34
Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al. [28] CS 443 schoolchildren (♀ 44.4%; ♂ 55.5%) 10 (9–11) Spain NA NA Anthropometric measurements (equation of Parizkova for body fat (%)) Fasting glucose; TG; HDL-C; WC; BP; adiponectin determinations; hs-CRP. HOMA (n = 427)
(♀ 238; ♂ 189)
(n = 16)
(♀ 8; ♂ 8)
Adolescents with IR had significantly lower (p < 0.01) mean values of FFBM (%) and significantly differences with respect to sex (p < 0.05)  
FFBM (%)
♀ 77.8 (72.1–82.7)
♂ 79.8 (74.2–85.4)
Total 78.5 (73.0–83.8)
FFBM (%)
♀69.5 (67.4–74.0)
♂ 72.9 (69.6–81.9)
Total 70.6 (68.2–75.8)
  1. CS Cross-sectional studies, CT Clinical trial, NA Not available, IR Insulin resistance, TG Triglycerides, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, WC Waist circumference, BP Blood pressure, hs-CRP High sensitivity C-reactive protein, LDL-C Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDL Very low-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, QUICKI Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, MBP Mean blood pressure, GF/IF The ratio of fasting glucose to fasting insulin, DXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, LM Lean mass, LBM Lean body mass, TLM Total lean mass, FFBM Fat free body mass