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Table 2 Percentage distribution of low birth weight (LBW: < 2500 g) among children by background characteristics, India, 2015–16

From: Newborn low birth weight: do socio-economic inequality still persist in India?

Background characteristics LBW P-value
Age at index birth (in Years)   *
 ≤ 19 19.9  
 20–24 16.9  
 25–29 16.7  
 30–35 17.1  
 35+ 18.5  
Body mass index   *
 Underweight 21.1  
 Normal 16.6  
 Overweight and Obese 14.5  
Ante-natal care   *
 No 22.9  
 Partial 17.8  
 Fulla 14.5  
Birth order and interval   *
 First 18.0  
 2–3 & < 23 months 17.7  
 2–3 & > 23 months 16.3  
 4+ & < 24 months 20.3  
 4+ & > 24 months 17.9  
Education   *
 No education 19.4  
 Primary 19.8  
 Secondary 17.1  
 Higher 13.3  
Caste   *
 Scheduled Caste 18.4  
 Scheduled Tribe 19.3  
 Other Backward Class 17.0  
 Others 16.3  
Religion
 Hindu 17.6  
 Muslim 16.2  
 Others 15.7  
Wealth index   *
 Poorest 19.6  
 Poorer 18.3  
 Middle 17.6  
 Richer 17.5  
 Richest 14.1  
Residence   *
 Urban 16.5  
 Rural 17.8  
Sex of the child   *
 Male 16.1  
 Female 18.9  
Region   *
 North 19.8  
 Central 19.3  
 East 15.7  
 Northeast 13.6  
 West 18.3  
 South 15.9  
Source of drinking Water
 Not improved 17.8  
 Improvedb 17.3  
Type of toilet facility   *
 Not improved 18.8  
 Improvedc 16.2  
Type of cooking fuel   *
 Unclean 18.3  
 Cleand 16.1  
Total 18.2  
  1. LBW Low birth weight
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. aFull ANC defined as mother who received four or more antenatal checks, at least two tetanus toxoid injection, and took iron and folic acid tablets or syrup for 100 days or more during their last live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey
  4. bInclude piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, and community reverse osmosis (RO) plants
  5. cInclude flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems, septic tanks, and pit latrines; ventilated improved pit (VIP)/biogas latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and twin pit/composting toilets
  6. dInclude Electricity, LPG/natural gas, biogas