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Table 3 Patients’ characteristics stratified by actual treatment applied (variable enemas, lipid enemas, no enemas)

From: Lipid enemas for meconium evacuation in preterm infants – a retrospective cohort study

  (I) Variable enemas
(n = 201)
(II) Lipid enemas
(n = 141)
(III) No enemas
(n = 57)
P-values
Gestational age; mean (weeks) 27.1 (2.2) 26.9 (2.1) 27.3 (2.3) I vs. II 0.45
I vs. III 0.57
II vs. III 0.28
Gestational age; median (weeks) 26.9 (23.3–31.7) 26.7 (23.4–31.9) 26.9 (23.6–31.9)
Birth weight; mean (g) 760.5 (211.6) 764.3 (214.4) 840.4 (199.5) I vs. II 0.85
I vs. III 0.20
II vs. III 0.04
Birth weight; median (g) 745 (280–1060) 740 (240–1230) 795 (490–1240)
Male 99/201 (49.3%) 75/141 (53.2%) 24/57 (42.1%) I vs. II 0.47
I vs. III 0.34
II vs. III 0.16
Small for gestational age 84/201 (41.8%) 57/141 (40.4%) 22/57 (38.6%) I vs. II 0.80
I vs. III 0.67
II vs. III 0.81
Multiple births 86/201 (42.8%) 47/141 (33.4%)   I vs. II 0.08
I vs. III 0.29
II vs. III 0.81
Caesarean section 185/201 (92.0%) 131/141 (92.2%) 52/57 (91.1%) I vs. II 0.77
I vs. III 0.84
II vs. III 0.69
Antenatal corticosteroid therapy 188/201 (93.5%) 127/141 (90.1%) 50/57 (87.8%) I vs. II 0.24
I vs. III 0.15
II vs. III 0.63
Pre-eclampsia 13/201 (6.5%) 13/141 (9,2%) 5/57 (8.8%) I vs. II 0.35
I vs. III 0.55
II vs. III 0.92
Oligohydramnios 15/201 (7.5%) 5/141 (3.5%) 2/57 (3.5%) I vs. II 0.13
I vs. III 0.29
II vs. III 0.99
Chorioamnionitis 47/201 (23.4%) 25/141 (17.7%) 13/57 (22.8%) I vs. II 0.21
I vs. III 0.93
II vs. III 0.41
Apgar 1 5 (1–9) 6 (0–9) 6 (0–9) I vs. II 0.17
I vs. III 0.11
II vs. III0.63
Apgar 5 8 (1–10) 8 (2–10) 8 (0–10) I vs. II 0.28
I vs. III 0.18
II vs. III 0.04
Apgar 10 9 (1–10) 9 (4–10) 9 (1–10) I vs. II 0.92
I vs. III 0.03
II vs. III 0.04
pH at birth 7.3 (6.83–7.49) 7.3 (6.85–7.48) 7.3 (7.02–7.40) I vs. II 0.58
I vs. III 0.66
II vs. III 0.40
No. of surfactant doses 1.0 (0–6) 1 (0–5) 1 (0–3) I vs. II 0.73
I vs. III 0.61
II vs. III 0.04
Moderate or severe BPD 32/201 (15.9%) 23/141 (16.3%) 6/57 (10.5%) I vs. II 0.92
I vs. III 0.31
II vs. III 0.29
Treatment with dexamethasone for BPD 16/201 (8.0%) 10/141 (7.1%) 3/57 (5.3%) I vs. II 0.77
I vs. III 0.49
II vs. III 0.64
Hydrocortisone for arterial hypotension 30/201 (14.9%) 20/141 (14.2%) 5/57 (8.8%) I vs. III 0.85
I vs. III 0.23
II vs. III 0.29
Hydrocortisone for BPD prophylaxis 1/201 (0.5%) 70/141 (49.6%) 29/57 (50.9%) I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III < 0.89
Treatment w. inhaled budesonide during first 14 days 66/201 (32.8%) 29/141 (20.6%) 10/57 (17.5%) I vs. II 0.01
I vs. III 0.03
II vs. III 0.63
PDA treatment with Indomethacin 90/201 (44.8%) 23/141 (16.3%) 4/57 (7.0%) I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III < 0.01
II vs. III 0.08
PDA treatment with Ibuprofen 44/201 (21.9%) 35/141 (24.8%) 11/57 (19.3%) I vs. II 0.53
I vs. III 0.67
II vs. III 0.41
PDA ligation 5/201 (2.5%) 2/141 (1.4%) 0/57 (0.0%) I vs. II 0.49
I vs. III 0.23
II vs. III 0.37
IVH grades 1 to 3 32/201 (15.9%) 21/141 (14.9%) 4/57 (7.0%) I vs. II 0.80
I vs. III 0.09
II vs. III 0.13
PVHI 9/201 (4.5%) 7/141 (5.0%) 4/57 (7.0%) I vs. II 0.83
I vs. III 0.44
II vs. III 0.57
PVL 5/201 (2.5%) 2 (1.4%) 0/57 (0.0%) I vs. II 0.49
I vs. III 0.23
II vs. III 0.37
ROP treatment (laser/antibody) 4/201 (2.0%) 3/141 (2.1%) 1/57 (1.8%) I vs. II 0.93
I vs. III 0.91
II vs. III 0.87
Fed predominantly with EBM during first 14 days 105/201 (52.2%) 100/141 (70.9%) 35/57 (61.4%) I vs. II < 0.01
I vs. III 0.22
II vs. III 0.19
Duration of hospital stay (days) 74.0 (1–232) 73 (1–225) 65 (1–232) I vs. II 0.81
I vs. III 0.19
II vs. III 0.26
Weight at discharge (g) 2538.9 (881.6) 2458.7 (845.6) 2457.9 (782.9) I vs. II 0.57
I vs. III 0.37
II vs. III 0.54
Mortality 18/201 (9.0%) 13/141 (9.2%) 6/57 (10.5%) I vs. II 0.93
I vs. III 0.72
II vs. III 0.78
  1. Data presented as mean (± standard deviation); median (minimum and maximum), or as the number of patients with percentages in parenthesis. BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, DOL Day of life, EBM Expressed breast milk, IVH Intraventricular hemorrhage, PDA Patent ductus arteriosus, PVHI Periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, PVL Periventricular leukomalacia, ROP Retinopathy of prematurity