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Table 2 Patients’ characteristics before vs. after implementing lipid enemas (“intention to treat analysis”)

From: Lipid enemas for meconium evacuation in preterm infants – a retrospective cohort study

  Before implementing lipid enemas
(n = 203)
After implementing lipid enemas
(n = 196)
P-value
Gestational age; mean (weeks) 27.1 (2.1) 27.0 (2.2) 0.67
Gestational age; median (weeks) 26.9 (23.3–31.9) 26.9 (23.4–31.9)
Birth weight; mean (g) 764.5 (214.4) 782.3 (210.0) 0.41
Birth weight; median (g) 745.0 (280–1340) 772.5 (240–1240)
Male 103/203 (50.7%) 98/196 (50.0%) 0.88
Small for gestational age 84/203 (41.4%) 79/196 (40.3%) 0.83
Multiple births 86/203 (42.4%) 67/196 (34.2%) 0.09
Caesarean section 187/203 (92.1%) 181/196 (92.3%) 0.93
Antenatal corticosteroid therapy 190/203 (93.6%) 175/196 (89.3%) 0.12
Pre-eclampsia 13/203 (6.4%) 18/196 (9.2%) 0.30
Oligohydramnios 16/203 (7.9%) 6/196 (3.1%) 0.04
Chorioamnionitis 48/203 (23.6%) 37/196 (18.9%) 0.25
Apgar 1 5 (0–9) 6 (0–9) 0.04
Apgar 5 8 (0–10) 8 (2–10) 0.84
Apgar 10 9 (1–10) 9 (4–10) 0.23
pH at birth 7.3 (6.83–7.49) 7.3 (6.85–7.48) 0.85
No. of surfactant doses 1 (0–6) 1 (0–5) 0.45
Moderate or severe BPD 32/203 (15.8%) 29/196 (14.8%) 0.79
Treatment with dexamethasone for BPD 16/203 (7.9%) 13/196 (6.6%) 0.63
Treatment with hydrocortisone:
 for arterial hypotension 30/203 (14.8%) 25/196 (12.8%) 0.56
 for BPD prophylaxis 1/203 (0.5%) 99/196 (50.5%) < 0.01
Treatment w. inhaled budesonide during first 14 days 66/203 (32.5%) 39/196 (19.9%) < 0.01
PDA treatment with Indomethacin 90/203 (44.3%) 27/196 (13.8%) < 0.01
PDA treatment with Ibuprofen 44/203 (21.7%) 46/196 (23.5%) 0.67
PDA ligation 5/203 (2.5%) 2/196 (1.0%) 0.27
IVH grades 1 to 3 32/203 (15.8%) 25/196 (12.7%) 0.39
Periventricular hemorrhagic infarction 9/203 (4.4%) 11/196 (5.6%) 0.59
PVL 5/203 (2.5%) 2/196 (1.0%) 0.27
ROP treatment (laser/antibody) 4/203 (2.0%) 4/196 (2.0%) 0.96
Fed predominantly with EBM during first 14 days 107/203 (52.7%) 134/196 (68.4%) < 0.01
Duration of hospital stay (days) 74 (1–232) 72 (1–232) 0.69
Weight at discharge (g) 2523.4 (887.7) 2566.5 (819.7) 0.58
Mortality 20/203 (9.9%) 17/196 (8.7%) 0.69
  1. Data presented as mean (± standard deviation); median (minimum and maximum), or as the number of patients with percentages in parenthesis. BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, DOL Day of life, EBM Expressed breast milk, IVH Intraventricular hemorrhage, PDA Patent ductus arteriosus, PVL Periventricular leukomalacia, ROP Retinopathy of prematurity