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Table 1 Summary of study variables and measures, by Ecological Model of Growth construct

From: Protocol of the Snuggle Bug/Acurrucadito Study: a longitudinal study investigating the influences of sleep-wake patterns and gut microbiome development in infancy on rapid weight gain, an early risk factor for obesity

   Prepartum Postpartum
Ecological Construct Variable/Type Measures/Instruments Pregnancy (3rd trimester) 3 wk. 8 wk. 3 mo. 6 mo. 9 mo. 12 Mo.
Child (Host/Agent) Birth History Gestational age, method of delivery, birth weight & length, day 2–5 weight & length, duration of labor, antibiotic exposure (from medical chart & reported)        
Child demographics Sex, race/ethnicity        
Medical History Antibiotic use, illnesses, other medications  
Infant Temperament Infant Behavior Questionnaire – very short form        
Reported Sleep Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire and parent-reported sleep diaries (5 days each  
Objective Sleep Ankle actigraphy (5 days each)  
Food Allergy FDA and CDC Infant Feeding Practices study II        
Gut microbiome and metabolomics Soiled diaper & swabs (Microbial genomic DNA and metabolites)  
Intestinal cell transcriptomics (exfoliomics) Soiled diaper (Microbial genomic RNA and human intestinal cell RNA)  
Exposure to nutrients, environmental phenols, and phthalates * Urine sample with urine collection bag  
Anthropometrics Weight and length on standardized instruments  
Maternal & Family Maternal demographics Age, education, race/ethnicity, income, nativity, length of time in U.S., occupational status, shift work status, parity, birth spacing,      
Maternal pregnancy factors Pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, complications, medication, antibiotic exposure, alcohol/tobacco exposure (from medical chart & reported)      
Acculturation Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans        
Employment changes Return to work timing, shift work status   
Discrimination Everyday Discrimination Scale        
Maternal distress Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21  
Maternal knowledge/intentions for infant feeding Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool       
Maternal sleep Wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index  
Maternal beliefs about infant sleep Maternal Cognitions about Infant Sleep Questionnaire        
Gut microbiome * Double-tip swabs (Microbial genomic DNA)  
Breastmilk microbiome * Manual or breast pump expression  
Feeding Practices & Dietary Intake Feeding Practices (infants) Breastfeeding duration, exclusivity, intensity mixed feeding, formula type, etc. via FDA and CDC Infant Feeding Practices study II  
Dietary Intake (mothers and infants) Introduction to solid foods and early infant feeding amount/duration via direct query & 3 self-reported dietary records (evaluated with Minnesota Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR))  
Environment Home environment Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory (HOME)       
Daycare environment FDA and CDC Daycare Arrangements and Feeding Practices   
Food security USDA Household Food Security Survey       
Tobacco exposure Direct query        
Infant sleep environment Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (e.g., bed-sharing, sleep position)  
Maternal-Child Interactions Maternal-child interactions Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory (HOME), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire       
Bedtime interactions Parental Interactive Bedtime Behaviors Scale        
Feeding Interactions Maternal-child feeding interactions Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire       
  1. CDC centers for diseases control and prevention, FDA food and drug administration
  2. * Measure will be collected at each visit if the participant opts into these biospecimen collections