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Table 2 Association between adversity, stress, and social support in pregnancy and having a ‘high-arousal’ infant compared with having a ‘social’ infant

From: Pregnancy and Infant Development (PRIDE)—a preliminary observational study of maternal adversity and infant development

  Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Maternal age 1.18 (0.97, 1.43) 1.28 (1.02, 1.59)
ACEs 0.91 (0.70, 1.19) 0.86 (0.62, 1.18)
 ≤ 2 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 > 2 1.25 (0.34, 4.66) 0.78 (0.17, 3.56)
Race
Other 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
Black 0.28 (0.07, 1.03) 0.18 (0.04, 0.83)
Perceived Stress a 0.95 (0.89, 1.04) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05)
Pregnancy-Specific Stress a
Frequency hassles: uplifts 1.22 (0.82, 1.83) 1.47 (0.93, 2.33)
Intensity hassles: uplifts 1.88 (0.64, 5.47) 1.92 (0.53, 6.99)
Cortisol (n = 28) a
pg./mg 0.86 (0.66, 1.12) 0.65 (0.80, 1.19)
 ≥ 5.5 versus < 5.5 0.60 (0.11, 3.30) 0.67 (0.10, 4.25)
Social Support (highest Quartile versus Quartiles 1–3) a
Appraisal 1.56 (0.38, 6.41) 1.31 (0.26, 6.69)
Belonging 4.90 (0.92, 25.9) 6.38 (0.76, 54.48)
Self-esteem 1.05 (0.23, 4.76) 1.36 (0.22, 8.47)
Tangible 2.76 (0.61, 12.47) 4.0 (0.64, 25.0)
  1. OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, ACE Adverse Childhood Experiences, ref references
  2. aAdjusted Odds Ratio –Models adjusted for ACE (≤ 2/ > 2), maternal age, race (black/other)