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Table 4 Neonatal outcomes stratified by maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester

From: Relationship between maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester of pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective single center study

Neonatal
Outcomes
Maternal 25(OH)D status(nmol/L) χ2/F/H
P-value
  < 50
(N = 15,696)
50–75
(N = 6981)
> 75
(N = 717)
Total
(N = 23,394)
 
Birth weight (Mean ± SD) 3346 ± 448 3340 ± 437 3329 ± 412 3343 ± 443 .833
.435&
Birth weight z score (Mean ± SD) .005 ± 1.010 −.008 ± .985 −.032 ± .928  
Low birth weight: < 2500 g 372(2.4) 141(2.0) 14(2.0) 527(2.3) 2.995
.224*
Very low birth weight: < 1500 g 42(0.3) 20(0.3) 1(0.1) 63(0.3) 0.529
.768*
Small for gestational age: <10th percentile (3 case excluded) 322(2.1) 135(1.9) 15(2.1) 472(2.0) 1.833
.766*
High birth weight: > 4000 g 955(6.1) 390(5.6) 38(5.3) 1383(5.9) 2.650
.266*
Large for gestational age: >90th percentile 3679(23.4) 1612(23.1) 160(22.3) 5451(23.3) 2.212
.697*
Birth length (Mean ± SD) 49.9 ± 1.4 49.8 ± 1.4 49.9 ± 1.1 49.9 ± 1.4 .689
.502&
Apgar score (Mean ± SD) 9.7 ± .9 9.7 ± 1.0 9.7 ± .8 9.7 ± .9 1.938
.144&
Apgar score      7.144
.308*
0–3 28(.2) 17(.2) 0 45(.2)
4–6 106(.7) 43(.6) 2(.3) 151(.6)  
7–8 270(1.7) 137(2.0) 9(1.3) 416(1.8)  
9–10 15,292(97.4) 6784(97.2) 706(98.5) 22,782(97.4)  
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit 1918(12.2) 761(10.9) 67(9.3) 2746(11.7) 12.200
.002*
Admission to neonatal intensive care unit (Mean ± SD) 6.2 ± 4.1 5.9 ± 3.1 5.1 ± 2.1 6.1 ± 3.2 .010#
Any respiratory disorders 334(2.1) 131(1.9) 16(2.2) 481(2.1) 1.205
.300*
Dyspnea (clinical diagnosis) 8(0.1) 5(0.1) 0 13(0.1) .782
.676*
Wet lung 266(1.7) 107(1.5) 13(1.8) 386(1.6) .902
.637*
Aspiration pneumonia 5 3 0 8
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 2 0 0 2
Pneumothorax 30(0.2) 6(0.1) 1(0.1) 37(0.2) 3.402
.183*
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 2 0 0 2
Neonatal convulsion 6 6 1 13
Hyperbilirubinemia 971(6.2) 434(6.2) 30(4.2) 1435(6.1) 4.487
.087*
Necrotizing enterocolitis 79(0.5) 26(0.4) 4(0.6) 109(0.5) 1.919
.383*
Sepsis 29(0.2) 14(0.2) 2(0.3) 45(0.2)
Retinopathy of prematurity 19 7 0 26
Neonatal death 1 1 0 2
  1. * chi-square test; # Kruskal—Wallis H-test; & ANOVA. Bonferroni adjustment was performed
  2. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with Bonferroni calculation. any respiratory disorders (including dyspnea, wet lung, aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia);
  3. a. Indicates significant differences between deficient group (< 50 nmol/L) and insufficient group(50 – 75 nmol/L);
  4. b. Indicates significant differences between deficient group and sufficient group(> 75 nmol/L);
  5. c. Indicates significant differences between insufficient group and sufficient group;