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Table 4 Neonatal outcomes stratified by maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester

From: Relationship between maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester of pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective single center study

Neonatal

Outcomes

Maternal 25(OH)D status(nmol/L)

χ2/F/H

P-value

 

< 50

(N = 15,696)

50–75

(N = 6981)

> 75

(N = 717)

Total

(N = 23,394)

 

Birth weight (Mean ± SD)

3346 ± 448

3340 ± 437

3329 ± 412

3343 ± 443

.833

.435&

Birth weight z score (Mean ± SD)

.005 ± 1.010

−.008 ± .985

−.032 ± .928

 

Low birth weight: < 2500 g

372(2.4)

141(2.0)

14(2.0)

527(2.3)

2.995

.224*

Very low birth weight: < 1500 g

42(0.3)

20(0.3)

1(0.1)

63(0.3)

0.529

.768*

Small for gestational age: <10th percentile (3 case excluded)

322(2.1)

135(1.9)

15(2.1)

472(2.0)

1.833

.766*

High birth weight: > 4000 g

955(6.1)

390(5.6)

38(5.3)

1383(5.9)

2.650

.266*

Large for gestational age: >90th percentile

3679(23.4)

1612(23.1)

160(22.3)

5451(23.3)

2.212

.697*

Birth length (Mean ± SD)

49.9 ± 1.4

49.8 ± 1.4

49.9 ± 1.1

49.9 ± 1.4

.689

.502&

Apgar score (Mean ± SD)

9.7 ± .9

9.7 ± 1.0

9.7 ± .8

9.7 ± .9

1.938

.144&

Apgar score

    

7.144

.308*

0–3

28(.2)

17(.2)

0

45(.2)

4–6

106(.7)

43(.6)

2(.3)

151(.6)

 

7–8

270(1.7)

137(2.0)

9(1.3)

416(1.8)

 

9–10

15,292(97.4)

6784(97.2)

706(98.5)

22,782(97.4)

 

Admission to neonatal intensive care unit

1918(12.2)

761(10.9)

67(9.3)

2746(11.7)

12.200

.002*

Admission to neonatal intensive care unit (Mean ± SD)

6.2 ± 4.1

5.9 ± 3.1

5.1 ± 2.1

6.1 ± 3.2

.010#

Any respiratory disorders

334(2.1)

131(1.9)

16(2.2)

481(2.1)

1.205

.300*

Dyspnea (clinical diagnosis)

8(0.1)

5(0.1)

0

13(0.1)

.782

.676*

Wet lung

266(1.7)

107(1.5)

13(1.8)

386(1.6)

.902

.637*

Aspiration pneumonia

5

3

0

8

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

2

0

0

2

Pneumothorax

30(0.2)

6(0.1)

1(0.1)

37(0.2)

3.402

.183*

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

2

0

0

2

Neonatal convulsion

6

6

1

13

Hyperbilirubinemia

971(6.2)

434(6.2)

30(4.2)

1435(6.1)

4.487

.087*

Necrotizing enterocolitis

79(0.5)

26(0.4)

4(0.6)

109(0.5)

1.919

.383*

Sepsis

29(0.2)

14(0.2)

2(0.3)

45(0.2)

Retinopathy of prematurity

19

7

0

26

Neonatal death

1

1

0

2

  1. * chi-square test; # Kruskal—Wallis H-test; & ANOVA. Bonferroni adjustment was performed
  2. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with Bonferroni calculation. any respiratory disorders (including dyspnea, wet lung, aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia);
  3. a. Indicates significant differences between deficient group (< 50 nmol/L) and insufficient group(50 – 75 nmol/L);
  4. b. Indicates significant differences between deficient group and sufficient group(> 75 nmol/L);
  5. c. Indicates significant differences between insufficient group and sufficient group;