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Table 2 Socio-demographic predictors for smoking and illicit drug use, NSCK 2007–2017

From: The role of tobacco smoking and illicit drug use in adolescent acute alcohol intoxication

  Smoking Illicit drug use
Prevalence Adjusted OR Prevalence Adjusted OR
Sociodemographic factors
Age category
   ≤ 14 years (ref) 19.9% (CI 17.7–22.4%) 1.00 10.8% (9.2–12.8%) 1.00
  15–16 22.1% (CI 20.6–23.7%) 1.26 (CI 0.86–1.86) 11.4% (10.3–12.6%) 1.29 (CI 0.82–2.01)
  17–18 25.6% (CI 25.6–28.7%) 1.38 (CI 0.80–2.39) 14.3% (12.1–16.8%) 1.76 (CI 0.96–3.20)
Sex
  Males (ref) 22.5% (CI 20.8–24.2%) 1.00 13.6% (CI 12.3–15.0%) 1.00
  Females 21.8% (CI 20.2–23.6%) 0.79 (CI 0.58–1.07) 10.0% (CI 8.8–11.2%) 0.74 (CI 0.52–1.05)
Educational level
  Low (ref) 28.6% (CI 26.5–30.7%) 1.00 12.8% (CI 11.3–14.5%) 1.00
  Middle 15.0% (CI 12.9–17.3%) 0.50 (CI 0.35–0.71)*** 9.7% (CI 8.1–11.7%) 1.11 (CI 0.75–1.66)
  High 9.9% (CI 8.1–12.1%) 0.31 (CI 0.20–0.49)*** 7.9% (CI 6.2–9.9%) 0.74 (CI 0.45–1.20)
Ethnicity
  Native Dutch (ref) 22.0% (CI 20.8–23.4%) 1.00 11.3% (CI 10.4–12.3%) 1.00
  Other ethnic background 23.5% (CI 20.0–27.4%) 0.78 (CI 0.47–1.30) 14.3% (CI 11.5–17.6%) 1.43 (CI 0.86–2.39)
Family structure
  Traditional family structure (ref) 9.9% (CI 20.8–23.4%) 1.00 9.9% (CI 8.9–11.0%) 1.00
  Non-traditional family structure 18.1% (CI 20.0–27.4%) 1.43 (CI 01.05–1.96)* 16.3% (CI 14.5–18.3%) 1.42 (CI 1.00–2.02)*
Alcohol-specific parental rule-setting
  Zero-tolerance rule-setting (ref) 16.7% (CI 14.5–19.1%) 1.00 11.5% (CI 9.7–13.6%) 1.00
  Partial permission 18.5% (CI 15.3–22.2%) 1.08 (CI 0.73–1.57) 13.6% (CI 10.8–16.9%) 1.03 (CI 0.68–1.56)
  Parental approval 27.1% (CI 23.4–31.2%) 1.38 (CI 0.91–2.08) 12.2% (CI 9.6–15.3%) 0.89 (CI 0.54–1.45)
Substance use patterns
Current smoking status
  Non-smoking (ref)    7.1% (CI 6.3–8.0%) 1.00
  Smoking    26.6% (CI 24.0–29.4%). 4.21 (CI 2.92–6.06)***
Intoxication characteristics
Illicit drug use
  No illicit drug usage (ref) 18.4% (CI 17.2–19.6%) 1.00   
  Illicit drug usage 51.5% (CI 47.2–55.9%) 4.26 (CI 3.00–6.2)***   
Blood alcohol concentration   0.74 (CI 0.55–0.98)*   0.59 (CI 0.43–0.82)**
Year of admission (2007–2017)   0.88 (CI 0.80–0.97)**   1.04 (CI 0.93–1.16)
  1. *** p < .001,** 0.001 < p < .01, * 0.01 < p < 0.05