Skip to main content

Table 1 Participant’s characteristics

From: Neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents: the moderator role of cardiorespiratory fitness

Characteristics Mean (SD)
Children
(n = 613)
Early Adolescence group
(n = 876)
Middle Adolescence group
(n = 929)
Age (years) 8.04 (0.93) 11.03 (0.84) 14.40 (1.26)a
Weight (kg) 32.79 (8.65) 45.27 (12.14) 58.24 (12.76)a
Height (m) 1.33 (0.08) 1.50 (0.08) 1.63 (0.09)a
Body mass index (kg/m2) 18.35 (3.57) 20.08 (4.42) 21.82 (3.79)a
Neck circumference (cm) 28.13 (2.39) 30.19 (2.84) 32.58 (2.81)a
Cardiorespiratory fitness (m) 832.17 (141.92) 860.64 (171.42) 950.34 (223.95)a
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 97.01 (11.46) 103.62 (11.86) 111.55 (11.88)a
Glucose (mmol/L) 4.75 (0.36) 4.92 (0.37) 4.92 (0.39)a
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.75 (0.28) 1.52 (0.27) 1.43 (0.26)a
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.74 (0.33) 0.80 (0.35) 0.81 (0.37)a
Cardiometabolic risk (z-score) −0.38 (2.34) −0.32 (2.40) −0.09 (2.24)a
n (%)
Sex
  Male 291 (47.5) 367 (41.9) 413 (44.5)
  Feminine 322 (52.5) 509 (58.1) 516 (55.5)
Cardiorespiratory fitness
  Healthy 451 (73.6) 374 (42.7) 274 (29.5)a
  Risk 162 (26.4) 502 (57.3) 655 (70.5)
Maturational stage
  Pre-pubertal 367 (61.6)* 116 (13.7) 14 (1.5)
  Initial development 151 (25.3) 301 (35.6)* 80 (8.7)
  Continuous maturation (stage III and IV) 63 (10.6) 399 (47.2) 652 (71.1)a
  Maturated 15 (2.5) 29 (3.4) 171 (18.6)a
Ethnicity
  White 510 (83.7) 677 (77.8) 705 (76.5)a
  Black 40 (6.6) 68 (7.8) 64 (6.9)
  Brown/mulatto 59 (9.7) 116 (13.3) 138 (15.0)a
  Indigenous 0 (0.0) 4 (0.5) 8 (0.9)
  Yellow 0 (0.0) 5 (0.6) 7 (0.8)
  1. SD Standard deviation, n number of participants, % percentage. aANOVA or chi-square for differences between children, early or middle adolescence groups (p < 0.05)