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Table 5 Crude and adjusted odd ratios for BDs associated with air pollutants during different gestational periods

From: The association between ambient air pollution and birth defects in five major ethnic groups in Liuzhou, China

    Crude    Adjusted  
   OR 95%CI P OR 95%CI P
PM2.5 Before pregnancy      
  1st month 1.02 0.99–1.00 0.34 1.00 1.00–1.01 0.53
  2nd month 0.93 0.89–0.98 0.76 1.05 0.96–1.15 0.27
  3rd month 1.00 0.97–1.26 0.35 0.99 0.94–1.13 0.32
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 1.00 0.99–1.03 0.46 1.07 0.96–1.15 0.26
  2nd month 0.97 0.86–1.01 0.47 1.15 0.99–1.21 0.16
  3rd month 0.83 0.75–0.98 0.91 1.05 0.98–1.16 0.27
PM10 Before pregnancy      
  1st month 1.00 0.99–1.07 0.84 1.01 0.98–1.05 0.78
  2nd month 1.01 1.00–2.03 0.00 1.00 0.99–1.07 0.76
  3rd month 1.31 1.04–3.21 0.00 1.12 1.03–2.01 0.22
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 1.06 1.00–1.20 0.03 1.00 0.94–1.31 0.06
  2nd month 1.73 1.60–2.00 0.01 1.14 1.12–2.43 0.02
  3rd month 1.61 1.44–2.10 0.07 1.51 1.13–2.03 0.02
O3 Before pregnancy      
  1st month 0.93 0.87–0.99 0.00 0.94 0.89–1.03 0.62
  2nd month 0.96 0.95–0.98 0.00 1.02 0.93–1.12 0.17
  3rd month 0.98 0.97–1.18 0.00 0.96 0.88–1.06 0.45
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 0.89 0.87–0.99 0.02 0.83 0.99–1.00 0.74
  2nd month 0.99 0.96–1.07 0.00 1.00 0.99–1.05 0.84
  3rd month 1.00 0.99–1.12 1.01 1.00 0.99–1.06 0.45
SO2 Before pregnancy      
  1st month 1.03 1.00–1.21 0.00 1.00 1.00–1.06 0.58
  2nd month 3.01 2.01–4.07 0.00 1.31 1.19–3.22 0.04
  3rd month 1.01 0.99–1.06 0.00 0.94 0.89–1.01 0.27
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 1.00 0.94–1.06 0.01 1.01 1.00–1.06 0.16
  2nd month 0.96 0.87–1.02 0.86 0.98 0.82–1.01 0.36
  3rd month 1.99 1.99–3.98 0.00 1.75 1.02–3.07 0.02
NO2 Before pregnancy      
  1st month 1.00 0.92–1.01 0.53 1.00 0.89–1.03 0.55
  2nd month 1.02 1.01–1.08 0.00 1.02 1.00–1.42- 0.13
  3rd month 1.03 1.02–1.14 0.00 1.01 1.00–1.32 0.39
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 1.00 0.99–1.21 0.94 1.01 1.00–1.07 0.14
  2nd month 1.27 1.04–1.75 0.40 0.89 0.84–1.01 0.13
  3rd month 1.99 1.39–2.03 0.03 0.91 0.88–1.11 0.72
CO Before pregnancy      
  1st month ~ 2.70 2.03–3.59 0.00 1.29 0.92–1.83 0.14
  2nd month 5.35 3.67–7.80 0.00 1.42 0.93–2.17 0.10
  3rd month 2.11 1.46–3.04 0.00 1.03 0.67–1.59 0.89
  Pregnancy       
  1st month 1.90 1.47–2.47 0.00 1.24 0.90–1.71 0.19
  2nd month 1.26 0.97–1.63 0.08 1.36 1.14–2.48 0.03
  3rd month 0.92 0.70–1.21 0.55 1.75 1.02–3.61 0.02
  1. Abbreviations: OR odd ratio, CI confidence interval. Models were adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, birth weight, infant gender, total previous live births, residence and other air pollutants within the same exposure period