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Table 4 Bivariable analysis of sanitation-related factors with acute diarrhea among under-five children in Woldia Town, northeast Ethiopia, March to June 2018

From: Prevalence of acute diarrhea and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) associated factors among children under five in Woldia Town, Amhara Region, northeastern Ethiopia

Variable Frequency Acute diarrhea COR (95% CI) p-value
Yes No
n(%) n(%) n(%)   
Type of sanitation facilityb
 Unimproved 385(79.5) 80(20.8) 305(79.2) 4.93(1.94-9.5) <0.001
 Improved 99(20.5) 5(5.1) 94(94.9) 1  
Sharing status of latrinea
 Not shared 272(56.2) 40(14.7) 232(85.3) 0.64(0.40-1.02) 0.063
 Shared 212(43.8) 45(21.2) 167(78.8) 1  
Latrine cleaned in the past two weeks
 Not cleaned 248(51.2) 52(21.0) 196(79.0) 1.63(1.01-2.63) 0.045
 Cleaned at least once 236(48.8) 33(14.0) 203(86.0) 1  
Proximity of latrine to home
 <15 meters 203(41.9) 39(19.2) 164(80.8) 1.18(0.64-1.68) 0.364
 ≥15 meters 281(58.1) 47(16.7) 234(83.3) 1  
Latrine pit hole had a cover
 No 422(87.2) 78(18.5) 344(81.5) 1.78(0.76-3.50) 0.321
 Yes 62(12.8) 7(11.3) 55(88.7) 1  
Feces observed on the floor and/or around the latrine
 Yes 103(21.3) 28(27.2) 75(72.8) 2.12(1.13-4.95) 0.003
 No 381(78.7) 57(15.0) 324(85.0) 1  
Child feces disposal method
 Unsafe 209(43.2) 57(27.3) 152(72.7) 3.31(2.02-5.43) <0.001
 Safe 275(56.8) 28(10.2) 247(89.8) 1  
Solid waste disposal method
 Improper disposal 280(57.8) 47(16.8) 233(83.2) 0.88(0.55-1.41) 0.599
 Proper disposal 204(42.2) 38(18.6) 166(81.4) 1  
Liquid waste discharge method
 Improper discharge 316(65.3) 46(14.6) 270(85.4) 0.56(0.26-1.25) 0.268
 Proper discharge 168(34.7) 39(32.2) 129(76.8) 1  
  1. 1 reference category, COR crud odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aLatrine sharing means one latrine used by two or more household members
  3. bAll households did not use improved sanitation facility, which means safely-managed sanitation was not implemented at all households