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Table 2 Differences in frequency of intake of food and drink items (times/day) according to eating the respective meals with family seldom vs. oftena. Crude and adjustedb regression coefficients (β) with 95% CI

From: Family meal participation is associated with dietary intake among 12-month-olds in Southern Norway

  Breakfast with family often n = 297 (73.7%) Lunch with family often n = 186 (53.3%) Dinner with family often n = 302 (74.4%) Between-meal snacks with family often n = 102 (26.9%) Supper with family often n = 155 (38.7%)
  Crude difference Adjusted difference Crude difference Adjusted difference Crude difference Adjusted difference Crude difference Adjusted difference Crude difference Adjusted difference
  β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Fruits 0.001 −0.288, 0.290 0.011 − 0.280, 0.301 0.067 − 0.190, 0.324 0.064 − 0.195, 0.322 − 0.125 − 0.414, 0.165 − 0.139 − 0.431, 0.152 0.117 −0.184, 0.417 0.111 −0.191, 0.413 −0.046 − 0.310, 0.217 −0.44 − 0.309, 0.221
Vegetables 0.249 − 0.032, 0.530 0.255 − 0.029, 0.538 0.206 − 0.045, 0.456 0.205 − 0.048, 0.457 0.304 0.023, 0.585 0.300 0.016, 0.584 0.404 0.110, 0.697 0.408 0.112, 0.702 0.214 −0.042, 0.471 0.226 −0.032, 0.484
Fruits and vegetables 0.250 −0.231, 0.732 0.265 −0.219, 0.750 0.273 −0.156, 0.702 0.268 −0.163, 0.700 0.179 −0.304, 0.662 0.160 −0.327, 0.648 0.520 0.018, 1.023 0.519 0.014, 1.024 0.168 −0.272, 0.608 0.182 −0.260, 0.624
Homemade dinners −0.004 − 0.187, 0.179 − 0.011 − 0.195, 0.173 0.138 −0.025, 0.301 0.129 − 0.034, 0.293 0.177 −0.005, 0.360 0.179 −0.005, 0.363 0.117 − 0.076, 0.309 0.108 − 0.086, 0.301 0.092 −0.075, 0.258 0.096 −0.072, 0.263
Commercial dinners −0.104 − 0.306, 0.99 − 0.094 −0.299, 0.110 − 0.093 − 0.274, 0.087 − 0.089 −0.270, 0.093 − 0.235 − 0.437, − 0.033 −0.249 − 0.453, − 0.045 −0.100 −0.308, 0.109 − 0.103 − 0.314, 0.107 − 0.041 − 0.226, 0.144 − 0.052 −0.238, 0.134
Homemade baby cereal − 0.082 − 0.240, 0.077 −0.082 − 0.241, 0.077 0.152 0.013, 0.292 0.154 0.014, 0.295 0.205 0.048, 0.363 0.197 0.036, 0.356 −0.118 − 0.284, 0.047 − 0.123 −0.289, 0.043 − 0.095 −0.239, 0.048 − 0.088 − 0.232, 0.056
Commercial baby cereal −0.457 − 0.701, − 0.212 − 0.447 − 0.689, − 0.204 − 0.287 − 0.507, − 0.067 −0.286 − 0.504, − 0.069 −0.532 − 0.777, − 0.288 −0.550 − 0.792, − 0.308 − 0.334 −0.590, − 0.078 −0.313 − 0.566, − 0.059 −0.302 − 0.526, − 0.078 −0.276 − 0.498, − 0.053
Drinking water 0.516 0.182, 0.849 0.492 0.159, 0.825 0.523 0.229, 0.818 0.514 0.219, 0.808 0.590 0.257, 0.923 0.579 0.245, 0.912 − 0.033 − 0.317, 0.382 0.043 − 0.307, 0.393 0.064 − 0.242, 0.370 0.094 − 0.212, 0.400
Milk 0.170 − 0.83, 0.423 0.169 −0.086, 0.424 0.019 −0.204, 0.242 0.029 −0.195, 0.253 0.311 0.059, 0.564 0.304 0.050, 0.559 0.166 −0.094, 0.427 0.148 −0.113, 0.409 0.191 −0.043, 0.425 0.181 −0.053, 0.416
Sweetened beverages −0.207 − 0.460, 0.047 − 0.207 − 0.461, 0.047 − 0.121 − 0.357, 0.095 − 0.130 − 0.356, 0.097 − 0.192 −0.446, 0.062 − 0.198 −0.454, 0.057 −0.179 −0.441, 0.803 − 0.185 −0.449, 0.079 0.041 −0.271, 0.188 0.039 −0.271, 0.192
Desserts and cakes 0.111 0.007, 0.216 0.111 0.007, 0.215 0.056 −0.038, 0.150 0.059 −0.034, 0.153 0.101 −0.004, 0.206 0.105 0.000, 0.210 0.031 −0.075, 0.137 0.027 −0.080, 0.133 0.038 −0.057, 0.134 0.026 −0.069, 0.122
  1. Significant results are bolded
  2. a Family meals ‘often’ defined as 4–7 days per week, and ‘seldom’ as 0–3 days per week
  3. b Associations adjusted for randomization status, maternal education, and child sex