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Table 3 Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under-5 years old (n = 8879)

From: Factors associated with diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection in children under-5 years old in Ghana: an analysis of a national cross-sectional survey

Variable Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Child age (months)
 0–5 1 1
 6–11 1.44 (1.07,1.93) 1.43 (1.06,1.93) *
 12–23 1.44 (1.12,1.85) 1.41 (1.10,1.82) *
 24–59 1.14 (0.92,1.43) 1.13 (0.90,1.41)
Gender **
 Boy 1 1
 Girl 0.92 (0.8,1.06) 0.93 (0.80,1.06)
Child’s health insurance status
 Yes 1 1
 No 0.96 (0.85,1.09) 0.94 (0.83,1.07)
Mothers education
 No formal education 1 1
 Primary 1.25 (1.01,1.55) 1.22 (0.98,1.53)
 Secondary 1.10 (0.96,1.27) 1.06 (0.90,1.24)
 College or higher education 0.89 (0.63,1.26) 0.78 (0.53,1.15)
Source of drinking water **
 Unimproved 1 1
 Improved 0.93 (0.79,1.09) ** 0.84 (0.70,1.02)
Sanitation
 Unimproved 1 1
 Improved 0.97 (0.85,1.11) 0.92 (0.79,1.07)
Floor material
 Improved 1 1
 Unimproved 0.76 (0.59,0.98) 0.77 (0.58,1.02)
Household Wealth **
 Poorest 1 1
 Poor 1.06 (0.86,1.30) 1.02 (0.81,1.27)
 Middle 1.18 (0.94,1.48) 1.14 (0.88,1.47)
 Rich 1.07 (0.87,1.33) 1.03 (0.78,1.34)
 Richest 1.11 (0.89,1.38) 1.08 (0.81,1.43)
Place of residence
 Urban 1 1
 Rural 0.91 (0.79,1.04) 0.89 (0.75,1.06)
Presence of handwashing station in dwelling **
 No 1 1
 Yes 1.08 (0.82,1.44) 1.11 (0.80,1.56)
  1. * = Significant at P-value < 0.05; 1 = Reference category; ** = Variables with P-value > 0.2 but were included in the adjusted model as these variables are clinically relevant or might have some biological plausibility with the outcome