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Table 4 Recommendations and sources of the evidence for preventing thermal injuries

From: Prevention of unintentional injuries in children under five years

Recommendations Guidelines and/or institutions recommending the intervention Source of the evidence
Smoke alarms
- Have a functional smoke detector alarm
- Legislations
- WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- PrevInfad 2011 [42]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- NICE 2010b [35]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Kendrick 2013; Cochrane systematic review [50]
- Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
- Turner 2011; Cochrane systematic review [49]
- DiGuiseppi 2001; Cochrane systematic review [59]
- Ballesteros 2005, cohort study [60]
- Smith 2006; cohort study [61]
- Towner 2001, systematic review [62]
Control of hot water
- Regulating the temperature of water flowing from household taps
- Safe pre-set temperature for all water heaters
- Legislations
- Educational programmes
- WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- PrevInfad 2011 [42]
- RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- NICE 2010b [35]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Kendrick 2013; Cochrane systematic review [50]
- Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
- Kendrick 2011, RCT [63]
Non-flammable fabrics
- Use of fire-retardant materials for making children’s sleepwear
- Legislation
- WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- Liao 2000; law and regulations [64]
Fire sprinkler system - WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
(See original documents)
Electrical safety - WHO 2011; global burns guide [3] - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
Lighters
- Legislations for child-resistant lighters and self-extinguishing cigarettes
- Legislations
- WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
- European laws and regulations 2006 [65]
Fireworks
- Legislation banning the manufacture and sale of fireworks
- Education campaigns
- WHO 2011; global burns guide [3]
- WHO 2008; European region [1]
- NICE 2010b [35]
- EuroSafe 2006 [13]
(See original documents)
Have an escape plan - RCPCH 2019 [2]
- CDC 2019 [16]
- Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
Possession of a fire extinguisher   - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
Use of fire guards - RCPCH 2019 [2] - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
Keeping hot drinks/food out of reach of children - RCPCH 2019 [2] - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
Storage of matches or lighters out of reach of children - RCPCH 2019 [2] - Kendrick 2012; Cochrane systematic review [45]
  1. Abbreviations: CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, PrevInfad PrevInfad workgroup from the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, RCPCH Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, WHO World Health Organization