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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of potential risk factors for the suspected toxic syndrome

From: Suspected paracetamol overdose in Monrovia, Liberia: a matched case–control study

  Cases
(N = 30)
Hospital Controls (N = 53) p-value Community Controls (N = 48) p-value Pooled Controls (N = 101)
n(%) n(%) OR
(95% CI)
aORa
(95%CI)
n(%) OR(95% CI) aOR*
(95%CI)
n(%) OR
(95% CI)
aORa
(95%CI)
p-value
Paracetamol (total) 26(87) 28(53)     46(96)     74(73)    
Paracetamol supratherapeutic dose 9(30) 5(9) 3.8 (1.1–12.4) 3.7 (1.0–13.1) 0.046 2(4) 13.6 (1.7–110.1) 13.6 (1.7–110.1) 0.014 7(7) 5.6 (1.9–16.9) 6.6 (2.1–21.3) 0.001
Antibiotics 16(53) 16(30)     42(88)     58(57)    
Co-trimoxazole 7(23) 3(6) 4.4 (1.0–17.1) 4.3 (1.0–18.6) 0.048 17(35) 0.6 (0.2–2.0)    20(20) 1.3 (0.5–3.3)   
Erythromycin 2(7) 0(0)     4(8) 0.9 (0.2–4.9)    4(4) 1.9 (0.3–10.4)   
Anti-malaria Medication 11(37) 12(23)     36(75)    48(48)    
Antimalarial drugs supratherapeutic doses 1(3) 0(0)     6(13) 0.3 (0.4–2.8)    6(6) 0.6 (0.1–5.3)   
Traditional Medicine 20(67) 18(34)     22(46)     40(40)    
“Tonton” Leaf 4(13) 4(8) 1.7 (0.4–6.8)    5(10) 1.4 (0.3–5.9)    9(9) 1.4 (0.4–5.3)   
“Monkey Apple” Leaf 3(10) 0(0)     4(8) 1.4 (0.3–6.1)    4(4) 2.4 (0.5–10.8) 3.4 (0.7–17.3) 0.148
“Wild Wild” Leaf 2(7) 3(6) 1.2 (0.2–7.0)    2(4) 2.0 (0.3–14.1)    5(5) 1.4(0.3–7.5)   
Pre-prepared traditional treatments 3(10) 1(2) 5.2 (0.5–50.4) 10.9 (0.7–160.9) 0.081 0(0)     1(1) 11.2 (1.2–108.1)   
“Lynch Street” Medicine 1(3) 2(4) 1 (0.0–11.0)    2(4) 0.6 (0.1–7.0)    4(4) 0.9 (0.1–8.0)   
Almond Bark 0(0) 0(0)     4(8)    4(4)    
Other traditional treatments 7(23) 10(19) 1.4 (0.5–4.6)    10(21) 0.9 (0.3–3.0)    20(20) 1.3 (0.5–3.5)   
  1. aAdjusted odds ratios (aORs) are derived from stepwise conditional logistic regression models. The initial multivariate models included all the variables which were included in the univariate analysis presentedby the odds ratio (OR). Non-significant variables were eliminated to reach the final model as presented