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Table 5 Adjusted marginal effects [95% CI] of the number of EI services among sample children who initiated EI services and have complete child outcomes informationA

From: Child characteristics and early intervention referral and receipt of services: a retrospective cohort study

 Marginal Effects of Number of Services (Compared to other Service Groups)
Independent VariablesOne ServiceTwo ServicesThree or More Services
Had a Diagnosis−0.143***− 0.176***0.319***
[−0.194, − 0.092][− 0.257, − 0.095][0.199, 0.440]
Birthweight by Category
 Less than 1.5 kgrefrefref
 1.5 kg to 2.5 kg−0.025− 0.0180.043
[−0.201, 0.151][−0.132, 0.096][− 0.247, 0.332]
 Greater than 2.5 kg0.0010.000−0.001
[−0.161, 0.162][−0.099, 0.099][− 0.262, 0.260]
Child’s Age
 Less than 12-Monthsrefrefref
 12–24 Months0.078*0.044*−0.122*
[0.006, 0.151][0.009, 0.078][−0.226, − 0.019]
 Greater than 24-Months0.0730.042−0.114
[− 0.052, 0.197][−0.010, 0.093][− 0.288, 0.060]
Family Income (annually)
 Greater than $20,000−0.054− 0.0440.098
[−0.134, 0.025][−0.124, 0.036][− 0.060, 0.257]
Race/Ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanicrefrefref
 Black, non-Hispanic− 0.021− 0.0240.045
[−0.111, 0.069][− 0.127, 0.079][− 0.148, 0.238]
 Hispanic0.0610.046−0.107
[−0.015, 0.137][− 0.022, 0.114][− 0.249, 0.035]
 Other, non-Hispanic0.0840.056−0.140
[−0.037, 0.205][−0.019, 0.132][− 0.331, 0.051]
Child’s sex, Female− 0.003− 0.0020.005
[−0.061, 0.054][− 0.039, 0.034][− 0.089, 0.100]
Primary Language, English− 0.016− 0.0100.026
[−0.079, 0.047][− 0.049, 0.029][− 0.075, 0.128]
Insurance Type, Medicaid and CHP+− 0.040− 0.0210.061
[−0.166, 0.086][− 0.074, 0.032][− 0.118, 0.239]
Child Outcomes Summary Sub-ScalesB
 Positive Social Emotional Skills0.027*0.017*−0.044*
[0.002, 0.053][0.001, 0.033][−0.084, − 0.004]
 Acquiring and Using Knowledge and Skills−0.008− 0.0050.013
[−0.032, 0.016][−0.020, 0.010][− 0.026, 0.052]
 Taking Appropriate Action to Meet Needs−0.007− 0.0040.012
[−0.029, 0.014][−0.018, 0.009][− 0.023, 0.047]
  1. ASample includes 448 children with complete baseline Child Outcomes Summary Data
  2. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001
  3. BEach COS sub-scale score is derived from provider clinical judgment, parent concerns, and developmental assessment results and measured on a 7-point scale, from 1 = very early skills (i.e., child does not use any immediate foundational skills related to this outcome) to 7 = all skills expected (i.e., there are no concerns about the child’s function in this area)