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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of Black African Birth to Twenty Plus participants by inclusion statusa

From: Initial engagement and persistence of health risk behaviors through adolescence: longitudinal findings from urban South Africa

  Included (n = 1822) Excluded (n = 746) p-valueb
Sex
 Males 880 (48%) 369 (49%) 0.62
 Females 942 (52%) 377 (51%)  
Maternal age at birth 25.81 (6.26) 25.95 (5.87) 0.59
Maternal years of schooling 9.58 (2.74) 8.53 (3.59) <  0.01
Marital status
 Single 1206 (66%) 425 (57%) <  0.01
 Partnered 608 (34%) 320 (43%)  
Asset tertile in early life
 1 624 (34%) 287 (38%) <  0.01
 2 362 (20%) 87 (12%)  
 3 512 (28%) 76 (10%)  
 Missing 324 (18%) 296 (40%)  
Asset tertile at age 7 y
 1 664 (36%) 78 (10%) <  0.01
 2 398 (22%) 33 (4%)  
 3 466 (26%) 45 (6%)  
 Missing 294 (16%) 590 (79%)  
Child stress in early life
 Below median 498 (27%) 210 (28%) 0.02
 Above median 401 (22%) 129 (17%)  
 Missing 923 (51%) 407 (55%)  
Child stress at age 5 y
 Below median 750 (41%) 79 (11%) <  0.01
 Above median 441 (24%) 28 (4%)  
 Missing 631 (35%) 639 (86%)  
Child stress at age 7 y
 Below median 921 (51%) 87 (12%) <  0.01
 Above median 542 (30%) 35 (5%)  
 Missing 359 (20%) 624 (84%)  
  1. a Presented as N (%) or mean ± SD
  2. b Chi-square or t-test p-values