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Table 5 Risk factors associated with high grade IVH in univariable and multivariable analysis (N = 97)

From: Intraventricular haemorrhage in a Ugandan cohort of low birth weight neonates: the IVHU study

Risk factor Risk factor present
n (%)
No IVH
(N = 79)
n (%)
High grade IVH
(N = 18)
n (%)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Antepartum
 Multiple pregnancy 39 (40.2) 34 (43.0) 5 (27.8) 0.51 (0.15–1.49) 0.41 (0.12–1.27)
 Maternal HIV 6 (6.2) 3 (3.8) 3 (16.7) 4.67 (0.80–27.46) 3.08 (0.48–19.38)
 Antepartum steroids (2 doses) 6 (6.2) 6 (7.6) 0 0 (0–3.58) 0 (0–4.51)
 Antepartum steroids (any doses) 46 (47.4) 39 (49.4) 7 (38.9) 0.59 (0.20–1.66) 0.835 (0.26–2.66)
Intrapartum
 Vaginal delivery 78 (80.4) 60 (75.9) 18 (100.0) 6.15 (0.86–271.26)
 Outborn 46 (47.4) 39 (49.4) 7 (38.9) 1.53 (0.55–4.55) 3.01 (0.92–11.03)
Neonatal
 Male 51 (52.6) 41 (52.9) 10 (55.6) 1.16 (0.41–3.33) 1.73 (0.21–15.49)
 Admission weight < 1500 ga 49 (50.5) 38 (48.1) 11 (61.1) 1.70 (0.61–5.03) 2.25 (0.26–20.59)
 Gestation < 32 weeksb 35 (36.1) 27 (34.2) 8 (44.4) 0.68 (0.24–1.96) 8.18 (1.18–69.37)
 SGA (<10th centile) 37 (38.1) 33 (41.8) 4 (22.2) 0.38 (0.10–1.18) 0.81 (0.14–4.36)
 Resuscitation at delivery 13 (13) 11 (13.9) 2 (11.1) 0.77 (0.11–3.26) 1.19 (0.16–5.72)
 Resuscitation in NU 8 (8.2) 3 (3.8) 5 (27.8) 9.74 (2.14–52.4) 9.24 (1.83–54.38)
 Respiratory distress within 4 h of admission 39 (40.2) 29 (36.7) 10 (55.6) 2.16 (0.77–6.24) 1.78 (0.52–6.16)
 bCPAP 29 (29.9) 20 (25.3) 9 (50.0) 2.95 (1.92–8.60) 2.28 (0.67–7.77)
 hsPDA 15 (15.5) 10 (12.7) 5 (27.8) 2.65 (0.73–8.86) 2.36 (0.62–8.45)
 Hypothermia (< 36 degrees) in 1st 24 h 69 (71.1) 53 (67.1) 16 (88.9) 3.77 (0.97–25.03) 3.84 (0.87–27.67)
 Hypoxia (< 90% saturation in air) at presentation 41 (42.3) 31 (39.2) 10 (55.6) 2.12 (0.74–6.41) 2.01 (0.64–6.51)
  1. a Adjusted for sex and gestational age, b adjusted for sex and weight. All other variables adjusted for sex, gestational age and weight