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Table 5 Univariate results of the metabolites from broad metabolomics

From: Altered metabolism of mothers of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a case control study

Metabolite Test ASD-M (mean ± std) N = 30 TD-M (mean ± std) N = 29 p-Value FDR AUC Ratio (ASD-M/TD-M)
Fructose Δ t ≠ † 2.08E6 ± 7.88E5 3.61E6 ± 2.07E6 6.88E-04 0.00 0.81 0.60
Histidylglutamate Δ t ≠ 1.05E5 ± 3.25E4 7.27E4 ± 2.05E4 2.67E-05 0.00 0.80 1.50
Decanoylcarnitine (C10) Δ b t ≠ 3.73E6 ± 1.48E6 5.85E6 ± 2.36E6 1.55E-04 0.00 0.78 0.66
S-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate Δ MW 1.62E5 ± 1.06E5 2.65E5 ± 1.14E5 3.09E-04 0.00 0.77 0.63
Octanoylcarnitine (C8) Δ b MW 1.96E6 ± 7.67E5 3.00E6 ± 1.17E6 4.00E-04 0.00 0.77 0.67
4-vinylphenol sulfate Δ t ≠ † 6.52E5 ± 6.79E5 2.20E6 ± 2.27E6 1.30E-03 0.00 0.77 0.31
Cis-4-decenoylcarnitine (C10:1) Δ b t= 2.25E6 ± 7.42E5 3.12E6 ± 1.07E6 5.82E-04 0.00 0.74 0.75
N-formylanthranilic acid Δ t= 1.12E5 ± 5.20E4 1.67E5 ± 7.04E4 1.20E-03 0.00 0.74 0.69
N-acetylasparagine Δ t ≠ † 3.31E5 ± 6.33E4 4.37E5 ± 1.60E5 1.90E-03 0.00 0.73 0.78
Arachidoylcarnitine (C20)a  Δ b MW 4.68E5 ± 2.09E5 5.80E5 ± 1.75E5 3.00E-03 0.00 0.73 0.85
N-palmitoylglycine Δ t= 7.60E4 ± 2.51E4 9.76E4 ± 2.65E4 2.20E-03 0.00 0.72 0.81
Citrulline Δ t= 3.36E7 ± 4.90E6 3.82E7 ± 6.37E6 2.60E-03 0.00 0.72 0.91
6-hydroxyindole sulfate Δ t ≠ 2.94E5 ± 1.56E5 5.16E5 ± 3.07E5 1.20E-03 0.00 0.72 0.59
N-palmitoylserine Δ MW 6.90E4 ± 3.61E4 9.33E4 ± 3.78E4 4.00E-03 0.00 0.72 0.77
Myristoylcarnitine (C14) Δ b MW 2.61E6 ± 1.21E6 3.30E6 ± 1.17E6 4.10E-03 0.00 0.72 0.82
Laurylcarnitine (C12) Δ b MW 1.41E6 ± 5.33E5 1.96E6 ± 8.25E5 4.30E-03 0.00 0.72 0.74
Stearoylcarnitine (C18) Δ b MW 2.15E7 ± 8.37E6 2.61E7 ± 6.68E6 0.01 0.00 0.71 0.85
Gamma-glutamylglycine Δ t ≠ † 2.91E4 ± 5.86E4 1.12E5 ± 1.24E5 2.20E-03 0.00 0.71 0.27
5-oxoproline Δ t= 9.59E6 ± 1.30E6 1.05E7 ± 1.29E6 0.01 0.00 0.70 0.94
Asparaginylalanine Δ t= 8.80E4 ± 2.68E4 6.89E4 ± 2.16E4 3.90E-03 0.00 0.70 1.32
Glutamine Δ t= 4.11E8 ± 5.43E7 4.46E8 ± 5.38E7 0.02 0.00 0.70 0.95
Catechol sulfate Δ MW 2.10E6 ± 1.54E6 3.22E6 ± 1.83E6 0.01 0.00 0.70 0.67
3-indoxyl sulfate Δ t ≠ 7.41E6 ± 3.56E6 1.15E7 ± 5.98E6 2.70E-03 0.00 0.70 0.67
7-methylxanthine Δ MW 1.56E5 ± 3.18E5 2.75E5 ± 2.48E5 0.01 0.00 0.70 0.58
Phenol sulfate Δ MW 1.22E7 ± 7.67E6 1.88E7 ± 1.21E7 0.01 0.00 0.70 0.67
Cinnamoylglycine Δ t ≠ † 1.73E5 ± 1.59E5 3.87E5 ± 4.08E5 0.01 0.00 0.70 0.46
Alpha-ketoglutaramatea Δ t= 2.53E6 ± 1.46E6 3.59E6 ± 1.77E6 0.02 0.00 0.70 0.73
Isovalerylglycine Δ MW 5.91E4 ± 2.88E4 7.81E4 ± 2.82E4 0.01 0.00 0.69 0.78
Propionylglycine Δ MW 9.15E4 ± 1.19E5 1.97E5 ± 1.89E5 0.01 0.00 0.69 0.48
Docosapentaenoylcarnitine (C22:5n3)a Δ b MW 1.61E5 ± 1.16E5 2.31E5 ± 1.39E5 0.01 0.00 0.69 0.72
N-acetyl-2-aminooctanoatea Δ t ≠ 7.20E4 ± 4.51E4 1.38E5 ± 1.05E5 3.20E-03 0.00 0.69 0.54
S-methylglutathione Δ t= 2.06E5 ± 5.87E4 2.47E5 ± 7.06E4 0.02 0.01 0.69 0.86
Gamma-glutamyltyrosine Δ MW 4.25E4 ± 3.40E4 6.83E4 ± 3.29E4 0.02 0.00 0.68 0.64
Succinylcarnitine (C4-DC) Δ b t= 2.80E6 ± 8.21E5 3.31E6 ± 9.04E5 0.03 0.07 0.68 0.87
Arachidonoylcarnitine (C20:4) Δ b MW 1.10E6 ± 5.59E5 1.47E6 ± 8.12E5 0.02 0.00 0.68 0.77
Glycine Δ t= 2.04E7 ± 4.44E6 2.42E7 ± 6.07E6 0.01 0.00 0.68 0.87
N-acetylvaline t= 7.51E4 ± 4.01E4 9.74E4 ± 3.92E4 0.04 0.28 0.68 0.80
Lignoceroylcarnitine (C24)a Δ b t= 6.12E5 ± 1.72E5 7.48E5 ± 2.61E5 0.02 0.01 0.68 0.84
Guaiacol sulfate Δ MW 4.23E5 ± 4.12E5 5.42E5 ± 3.12E5 0.02 0.01 0.68 0.81
5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) Δ MW 2.60E5 ± 1.28E5 3.12E5 ± 1.11E5 0.02 0.00 0.68 0.86
Proline Δ MW 2.44E8 ± 4.76E7 2.80E8 ± 5.83E7 0.02 0.00 0.68 0.90
Pyridoxate Δ MW 6.26E6 ± 2.78E5 8.61E5 ± 4.53E5 0.02 0.00 0.68 0.75
Palmitoylcarnitine (C16) Δ b MW 3.12E7 ± 8.25E6 3.89E7 ± 1.33E7 0.02 0.03 0.67 0.83
Eicosenoylcarnitine (C20:1)a Δ b MW 1.46E6 ± 4.30E5 1.82E6 ± 7.46E5 0.02 0.05 0.67 0.83
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Δ t ≠ † 5.53E4 ± 5.46E4 1.39E5 ± 1.91E5 0.03 0.05 0.67 0.41
Dimethyl sulfone MW 6.06E5 ± 2.08E6 3.36E4 ± 1.04E5 0.01 0.23 0.67 18.7
Tiglylcarnitine (C5:1-DC) Δ b MW 3.18E4 ± 3.19E4 5.19E4 ± 3.40E4 0.02 0.02 0.67 0.63
Adrenoylcarnitine (C22:4)a b MW 2.67E5 ± 1.50E5 3.75E5 ± 2.38E5 0.03 0.11 0.67 0.74
3-methylxanthine MW 2.32E5 ± 3.76E5 3.22E5 ± 3.10E5 0.03 0.13 0.67 0.74
Mannose MW 1.49E7 ± 3.96E6 1.27E7 ± 2.19E6 0.03 0.19 0.67 1.21
  1. The metabolites listed here are the 50 metabolites measured by Metabolon from broad metabolomics with the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Metabolites with p-value ≤ 0.05 and FDR ≤ 0.1 marked with Δ. The possible hypothesis tests include Welch’s test without the normality criteria being met (t †), Welch’s test (t ), Mann-Whitney U (MW, and Student’s t-test (t=). The a indicates metabolites that have not been officially confirmed based on a standard, but Metabolon is confident in the metabolite’s identity. The b indicates carnitine-conjugated metabolites