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Table 2 Characteristics of children with varying serum levels of 25(OH)D

From: Association of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Vitamin D intervention and outdoor activity among children in North China: an observational study

  Severe deficient Deficient Insufficient Sufficient P value
Vitamin D (ng/mL,x ± s) 7.45 ± 2.19 15.35 ± 2.87 25.04 ± 2.81 38.74 ± 10.57 < 0.001
Percentage (%) 6.57 25.51 33.52 34.40  
Male (%) 51.20 53.07 55.42 56.34 < 0.001
Age (years,x ± s) 7.54 ± 4.99 6.65 ± 3.94 4.18 ± 3.38 2.09 ± 2.39 < 0.001
Ethnic (Han, %) 98.31 98.49 98.28 98.14 0.063
Overweight and obesity (%) 18.11 11.34 8.17 4.21 < 0.001
Season (%)      < 0.001
 Spring 30.50 29.82 31.12 32.29  
 Summer 26.53 29.33 28.19 27.83  
 Autumn 16.31 17.35 18.69 18.85  
 Winter 26.66 23.50 22.00 21.03  
Outdoor activity time (%)      < 0.001
  < 30 min/d 58.69 56.23 25.63 25.72  
 30–60 min/d 23.56 22.14 38.63 34.31  
  > 60 min/d 17.75 21.63 35.74 39.97  
Intervention methods (%)      < 0.001
 No intervention 90.31 74.10 50.16 26.18  
 Supplementation intervention 7.27 17.94 35.06 46.70  
 Therapeutic intervention 2.43 7.96 14.79 27.12  
  1. x ± s and percentage (%) were used to describe the continuous and categorical variables, respectively; P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant