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Table 5 Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) of skeletal age estimates obtained from two observers and mean differences among female adolescent soccer players (n = 100)

From: Reproducibility and inter-observer agreement of Greulich-Pyle protocol to estimate skeletal age among female adolescent soccer players

Criteria n Observer 1 Observer 2 Mean difference Magnitude effect
Reading processing calculations
value (95% CI) d (qualitative)
Overall GPwhole   100 16.83 ± 1.30 15.38 ± 1.22 1.45 (1.30 to 1.59) 0.79 (moderate)
Bone-by-bone 30-boneGP M 100 14.20 ± 0.36 14.18 ± 0.37 0.01 (0.09 to 0.30) 0.05 (trivial)
Md 100 14.56 ± 0.61 14.56 ± 0.61 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00)   
GPpmb M 85# 14.24 ± 0.77 14.17 ± 0.74 0.07 (0.01 to 0.14) 0.10 (trivial)
Md 85# 14.24 ± 0.76 14.16 ± 0.74 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00)   
  1. GPwhole 30-bone assessment; 30-boneGP All bones examined, GPpmb Only pre mature bones examined, M Mean, Md Median, % 95 CI 95% confidence intervals, df Degrees of freedom; # 15 participants presented all bones as mature; The paired t-test cannot be computed because the standard error of the difference between means is 0