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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the sample

From: Reliability and validity of the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments (CREDI) in impoverished regions of China

Child and family characteristics Total sample Bayley sample
N % N %
Age group
 5–11 months 191 20.19 50 20.16
 12–17 months 215 22.73 56 22.58
 18–23 months 186 19.66 52 20.97
 24–29 months 206 21.78 62 25.00
 30–35 months 148 15.64 28 11.29
Gender
 Female 487 51.48 131 52.82
 Male 459 48.52 117 47.18
Sibling
 No 495 52.33 125 50.40
 Yes 451 47.67 123 49.60
Premature (gestational age < 37 weeks)
 Yes 44 4.65 12 4.84
 No 902 95.35 236 95.16
Primary caregiver
 Mother 661 69.87 172 69.35
 Others 285 30.13 76 30.65
Mother’s education
 Junior high school and below 520 54.97 120 48.39
 Senior high school and above 426 45.03 128 51.61
Household wealth index, mean (SD) 946 0.01(0.87) 248 0.24(0.78)
Home stimulation
 Participated in fewer than four of these six activities 636 67.23 158 63.71
 Participated in at least four of these six activities 310 32.77 90 36.29
  1. Note: In China, junior high school refers to chu zhong (初中; 初级中学; literally low-level middle school) from grades 7 to 9; senior high school refers to gao zhong (高中; 高级中学; literally high-level middle school) from grades 10 to 12. The household wealth factor was constructed to indicate the wealth status of the sample. The factor was based on the following nine variables: annual agricultural and non-agricultural income in 2017, and seven dummy variables of being registered as a poor household, having a flush toilet, water heater, PC, internet access, air conditioning, and a truck/car at home. It was generated using the iterated principal-factor method to calculate factor loadings and derive a factor score for each household. Questions about home stimulation activities in our survey asked whether, in the past 3 days, the primary caregiver had engaged their children in any of the following activities: reading books or looking at picture-books, telling stories, singing songs, taking child outside home for playing, playing with the child with toys, spending time with the child in naming things, counting, or drawing. Referred to the clarification about this variable from Multiple Indicator Survey by UNICEF [10], it is treated as a binary variable here