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Table 2 Development of equivalence (version 1–6)

From: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY) into German: a qualitative study in three countries

Stage Original Equivalence Changes made and cultural adaptations
  Version PEM-CY PEM-CY (English) semantic ideomatic experiential conceptual PEM-CY (G) (German)
Stage I Translation (T1/T2) • gender   x    • removal of gender nomenclating for child (her or she)
• wording (e.g. “environment”) x     • use of different words (synonyms)
e.g. environment (G: “Umfeld”, “Umwelt”)
• wording (e.g. “community”, “involvement”) x     • lack of direct translation into German
e.g. “community” (G:“gesellschaftlich” “gemeinschaftlich”)
involvement (“beteiligt” versus “engagiert”)
• wording (e.g. school lunch)   x    • country specific wordings e.g. “Jause”(Austria) versus “Vesper”(Germany), “Znüni”(Switzerland)
Stage II Synthesis (T3) • wording (e.g. assignments, lunch preparation)   x    • agreement to choose words commonly used in all three countries e.g. (G: “Hausaufgaben”, “Essen zubereiten”)
• “involvement” x     • agreement on “being part and involved” (G. “beteiligt und eingebunden sein”)
• activities    x   • removal of activities that are not typical in German speaking countries (e.g. “public speaking”)
• addition of cultural adapted activities, e.g. “soccer”, “learning vocabulary”
• structure     x • present environment questions 8 (9) on next page
Stage IV Pre-final 1 • general wording x     • small changes in used language structure, e.g. change from survey to “questionnaire” (G: “Fragebogen”)
• response item x     • revised “not an issue” (G: “nicht relevant”)
Following first round of interviews (#1 - #7)
Stage IV Pre-final 2 • introduction     x • adapt introduction
 - add age range of PEM-CY (5–17 years)
 - explain “participation” and “environment”
 - add a sentence that that this survey is not about the child’s independence
 - express that activities are just examples
• explanations    x   • add encouragement for parents to fill in school setting
• sequences    x   • change sequence of activity groups, start with “ Indoor play and games”
• response items    x x • for school setting, add “on school days”
• repeat the 4 month timeframe of frequency on each page
• insert a 2 phase response option to all environmental parts: “No, it is no issue”, “yes it is an issue” and then explain supportiveness.
• “demands”     x • insert “demands and expectations” to questions 4–6 in environments
• “involvement”      • change of German word for “involvement” (G: “Engagement”) (see stage II)
• structure     x • add subtitles to A (frequency), B (involvement), C (wished changes)
• add line for comments (voluntary) for all activity groups
Following second round of interviews (#8 - #11)
Stage V Pre-final 3 • “child”
• “neighborhoods”
x     • use whenever possible “child and adolescent”
• replaced by “visits to public areas”
• explanations     x • present a definition of home, school and community on each page
• response items environment     x • inserted a note that parents should think broadly about the environment sections
• change the answer format: headline (A and B answers) and subtheme (B1, B2, B3) referring to hindering and supportive environments
Following third round of interviews (#12 -#15)
 Stage IV Pre-final 4 • “school”     x • add “school and kindergarten”
• visualization     x • visually structure the item “wished changes” with a thicker line
• highlight “skip to C”
 Stage V Pre-final 5 • explanations    x   • explaining that garden or yard is part of home
• explaining that way to school is part of school
• “demands”     x • remove “expectations” (see stage IV)
• structure     x • remove proposed structure (see Stage V) and verbalize supporting and hindering environment (see Fig. 2)
  1. The Pre-final Version 6, after the backtranslation and grammar check by linguist, became the final version (see Table 3)