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Table 2 Association of excessive Internet use with discrimination by peers because of gender, physical appearance, culture/SC/L or unfavourable family situation: crude betas, betas adjusted for gender, age and interaction terms of discrimination per type with gender; results of linear regression analysis leading to standardized regression coefficients (β) (6462 Slovak adolescents aged 11–15 years old, HBSC Study 2018)

From: Adolescents exposed to discrimination: are they more prone to excessive internet use?

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β B (95%CI) p β B (95%CI) p β B (95%CI) p
Discrimination by peers because of gender 0.15 0.44 (0.37;0.51) *** 0.15 0.44 (0.37;0.51) *** 0.11 0.63 (0.41;0.85) ***
 Gender (male vs. female)     0.00 0.03 (−0.05;0.05) ns 0.03 0.02 (− 0.03;0.07) ns
 Age     0.14 0.10 (0.09;0.12) *** 0.10 0.10 (0.09;0.12) ***
 Discrimination because of gender x male gender        0.07 −0.13 (−0.26;0.011) ns
Discrimination by peers because of physical appearance 0.16 0.42 (0.35;0.48) *** 0.16 0.41 (0.35;0.47) *** 0.18 0.47 (0.269;0.67) ***
 Gender (male vs. female)     −0.01 −0.01 (−0.06;0.04) ns −0.00 −0.01 (− 0.06;0.05) ns
 Age     0.13 0.10 (0.08;0.12) *** 0.13 0.10 (0.08;0.12) ***
 Discrimination because of physical appearance x male gender        −0.02 −0.04 (−0.16;0.09) ns
Discrimination by peers because of culture/SC/L 0.15 0.71 (0.60;0.82) *** 0.15 0.71 (0.60;0.82) *** 0.19 0.86 (0.53;1.20) ***
 Gender (male vs. female)     0.01 0.02 (−0.03;0.06) ns 0.01 0.02 (−0.03;0.07) ns
 Age     0.14 0.10 (0.09;0.12) *** 0.14 0.10 (0.09;0.12) ***
 Discrimination because of culture/SC/L x male gender        −0.04 −0.11 (−0.33;0.12) ns
Discrim. by peers because of unfavorable family situation 0.15 0.67 (0.56;0.78) *** 0.14 0.65 (0.54;0.76) *** 0.26 1.23 (0.89;1.57) ***
 Gender (male vs. female)     0.01 0.01 (−0.04;0.06) ns 0.02 0.03 (−0.02;0.08) ns
 Age     0.13 0.10 (0.08;0.12) *** 0.13 0.10 (0.08;0.12) ***
 Discrimination because of unfavorable family situation x male gender        −0.13 −0.40 (−0.62;-0.17) **
  1. Model 1 Crude effect of discrimination on EIU
  2. Model 2 The effect of discrimination on EIU adjusted for gender and age
  3. Model 3 With added interaction of discrimination with gender on EIU
  4. *p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001; ns not significant