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Table 1 TNM pretreatment staging system

From: Radiation therapy is an important factor to improve survival in pediatric patients with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma by enhancing local control: a historical cohort study from a single center

StageSiteaTbSizeNcMd
1NonparameningealT1 or T2AnyAnyM0
2ParameningealT1 or T2≤5 cmN0 or NxM0
3ParameningealT1 or T2≤5 cmN1M0
   >5 cmAnyM0
4AnyT1 or T2AnyAnyM1
  1. a. For HNRMS favorable site refers to nonparameningeal site (orbit and nonorbit nonparameningeal head and neck); unfavorable site refers to parameningeal site
  2. b. T1, confined to primary site; T2, surrounding tissue invasion
  3. c. Regional nodes N0, not involved; N1, involved; Nx, status unknown
  4. d. M0, no distant metastasis; M1 distant metastasis (includes positive cytology in CSF, pleural, or peritoneal fluid)