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Table 4 Demographic Clinical and Laboratory Factors Associated with Unfavorable Outcome Following Enteroviral CNS Infection

From: Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants < 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators’ Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

FactorsUnfavorable Outcome N = 8Good outcome N = 95P-Valuea
Age at Onset (d), median (IQR)9 (5.5–19.5)25 (14–34)0.02
History of seizure at onset or during treatment, n (%)3/8 (38)2/95 (2)0.003*
Abnormal imaging, n (%)3/7 (43)4/19 (21)0.34
Meningoencephalitis, n (%)4 (50)3 (95)< 0.001*
Intensive care unit admission, n (%)4/7 (57)8/91 (9)0.004*
CSF white blood cell count × 106/Lb, median (IQR)180 (41–1271)153 (15.5–393.5)0.36
CSF protein (g/L), median (IQR)1.10 (0.73–1.27)0.76 (0.59–0.99)0.13
CSF protein over 1 g/Lb, n (%)5/8 (63)20/90 (22)0.02
CSF glucose (mmol/L)b, median (IQR)2.1 (1.95–2.29)2.45 (2.20–2.75)0.01
Extra-CNS disease, n (%)2/8 (25)6/95(6)0.12
  1. Legend: CNS central nervous system, CSF cerebrospinal fluid
  2. *These variables remained significant at a p value of < 0.005 after Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons
  3. aFor comparison of proportions, Fishers exact test (2-sided) was used; for comparison of medians, Mann-Whitney test was used
  4. b The presence of one of more of parameters suggestive of bacterial meningitis (cell count > 1000 × 106/L, Glucose < 2.0 mmol/L and CSF Protein > 1.0 g/L) in infants with EV was not associated with unfavorable outcome (8 (100%) infants who had unfavourable outcome with EV fit this criteria versus 57 (62%) who had favorable outcome; p = 0.05)