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Table 1 Comparison of demographic, clinical and outcome features in infants with HSV and EV meningitis by univariate analysis

From: Enteroviral and herpes simplex virus central nervous system infections in infants < 90 days old: a Paediatric Investigators’ Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC) study

 CharacteristicsHSV N = 7EV N = 103P-Valuea
DemographicMale gender, n (%)3 (43)54 (52)0.71
Age at onset (d), median (IQR)14 (6–19)25 (12–33)0.02
Overall16 (6–19)10 (6–27)1.0
Subset fulfilling meningoencephalitis criteria [Proportion (%) age < 28d][6/6 (100)][6/7 (86)]1.0
Gestation (wks), median (IQR)37 (37–38)37 (29–38)0.31
ClinicalICU admission, n (%)4 (57)12/98 (12)0.010
Seizures, n (%)   
Had at least one seizure at any time4 (57)5 (5).001
Had a seizure in first 72 h of admission2 (29)3 (3)0.03
Had at least one seizure during the admission3 (43)5 (5)0.008
Had seizures only after discharge1 (16)0 (0)0.06
Multisystemic infectionb5 (71)8 (8)< 0.001
Coinfection with bacteria or fungus, n (%)1 (14)4 (4)0.28
ImagingAbnormal head imagingc, n (%)4/7 (57)5/26 (19)0.068
Meningoencephalitis, n (%)6/7 (86)7 (7)< 0.001
Hospital stayLength of stay (d), median (IQR)25 (21–43)3 (3–5)< 0.001
Follow-upFollow-up (mo), median (IQR)16 (10–24)6 (1–12)0.03
Neurodevelopmental or neurological sequelaeNeurodevelopmental abnormalities at discharge or follow-upd, n (%)3/6 (50)7/102 (7)0.01
OutcomesDeath or neurological complicationse or neurodevelopmental abnormalities, n (%)   
All infants4/7 (57)8 (8)0.002
Infants with encephalitis4/6 (67)4/7 (57)1.00
  1. Legend: CSF cerebrospinal fluid, EV enterovirus, HSV herpes simplex virus, IQR interquartile range, mo months
  2. aFor comparison of proportions, Fishers exact test (2-sided) was used; for comparison of medians, Mann-Whitney test was used
  3. bThese were identified as independent risk factors after controlling for age and ICU admission, respectively
  4. cThis comparison was limited to those abnormalities that were consistent with CNS infection
  5. dAll infants with long-term seizures had neurodevelopmental delay (range mild to profound)
  6. e After adjusting for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni correction), these variables remained significant