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Table 2 Criterion-based Causes of Neonatal Near-Misses in Southern Ghana

From: Neonatal near-misses in Ghana: a prospective, observational, multi-center study

 All babies at enrollment
(N = 394)
N(%)
Indicators at 28-day follow-up
Not classified as a near-miss (N = 52)
N(%)
Confirmed near-misses at 28 days (N = 274)
N(%)
Babies who died within 28 days of birth (N = 68)
N(%)
Chi2
P Value
NNMAT Category 1: Evidence of severe complication
 (yes to any of the following: Apgar score < 7 at 5 min (n = 193), gestational age < 33 weeks (n = 150), birthweight < 1800 g (n = 196), suspected subgaleal bleed (n = 39), major congenital abnormality (n = 37), axillary temperature < 35 °C or > 39 °C (n = 131), severe jaundice that required blood exchange (n = 15), surgery in first week (n = 4))
260 (66.0)0 (0)204 (74.5)56 (82.4)<  0.001
NNMAT Category 2: Intervention-Based Criteria
 (yes to any of the following: Resuscitation (bag & mask) immediately after birth (n = 201), resuscitation in the NICU (n = 208), chest compressions/cardiac massage (n = 15), IV fluid bolus (n = 178), intubation (n = 11), double phototherapy (n = 64), double volume exchange blood transfusion (n = 19), oxygen therapy (n = 323), caffeine citrate/aminophylline (n = 169), thermal protection (n = 188))
293 (74.4)0 (0)233 (85.0)60 (88.2)<  0.001
NNMAT Category 3: Organ-Dysfunction-Based Criteria
 (yes to specific indicators for cardiovascular (n = 31), respiratory (n = 148), renal (n = 56), gastroenterologic (n = 17), neurologic (n = 292))
186 (47.2)0 (0)134 (48.9)52 (76.5)<  0.001
NNMAT Category 4: Investigation-based criteria
 (yes to any: haematocrit > 30% (n = 8), hemoglobin < 10gd/dl (n = 10), serum bilirubin >10x gestational age (n = 9), positive blood culture (n = 7))
23 (5.8)0 (0)16 (5.8)7 (10.3)0.058
 Met no criteria53 (13.5)52 (100)0 (0)1 (1.5)<  0.001
 Met one category of criteria76 (19.3)0 (0)69 (25.2)7 (10.3)
 Met two categories of criteria120 (30.5)0 (0)106 (38.7)14 (20.6)
 Met three categories of criteria134 (34.0)0 (0)90 (32.9)44 (64.7)
 Met four categories of criteria11 (2.8)0 (0)9 (3.3)2 (2.9)